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Lecture 6

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HIST 106
Paul Garfinkel

Lecture 6: Revolutions of 1848 (reading: chapter 21, pp. 645-653) Lecture questions: [1] Why was there more revolutionary upheaval in 1848? [2] Why did revolutions break out and soon fail? [3] Why were some countries spared? • Revolts in 38 cities in Europe in 1848 • This scale of upheaval is not seen again until 1989 • Only happens in “backward” or “forward” countries • Hopes for legal and parliamentary change was frustrated by the revolution • Labour demands affected cause for revolution (especially in France) • Why did this crash down in one for two years? [1] Why was there more revolutionary upheaval in 1848? France 1830 Revolution of 1830’s • This is the stem for revolutions in 1848 Moderate rebellion by liberals • French elites (moderates) wanted to overthrow Charles X • Charles X wanted autocratic rule, therefore no liberalism (tried to stage of coup of his own throne and restructure France) • Paris fights back from this attempted coup and Charles flees • Liberals who still want a monarch, offer the throne to Louis Philipe who is not a Bourbon. This is the end of the Bourbon Dynasty. The outcome • Restored moderate ideals and constitutional monarchy • Same political/press freedoms, although not extended to everyone • Did very little for workers in the end. Still the rich benefitted because most moderate liberals were upper class. Repression of further rebellion • After this, the monarchy fights back against any further rebellion – republicans are driven underground. • Radical underground groups such as “Society for the Friends of the People” who had illegal meetings called “banquets.” – the repression further radicalizes them. Francophilia • France is the leader of ideas and inspires revolt elsewhere • Belgium • German states • Young Italy (secret societies: Mazzini) • Magyar Revival By 1840 there is a perfect storm gathering.... • Constitutional governments being demanded by middle class/nobles • Artisans/workers/peasants demand free trade, economic changes to poverty • Crop failures such as the Irish Potato Famine happen and food prices go up across Europe • Rise in European population and less food and employment In this way the Revolutions were brought about by hunger more than anything, as well as a difference in the desires of the middle and lower classes. [2] Why did revolutions break out and soon fail? Second Republic in France • After an insurrection, Louis Philipe is replaced by a provisional government made up of a very varied group of people. (February Coalition?) • Elections held by universal male suffrage • Set up press freedoms etc. • This revolution was different because it set up worker’s councils created by Louis Blanc, one of the pioneers of socialism. − Created the Luxembourg Commission − This made maximum work hours and national workshops to relieve the unemployed Why did this not last? • 1848 reforms were too fast created by the February Coalition. − There were deep divisions in the coalition − It was only a revival in Paris − The moderate liberals were fine stopping at universal male suffrage and did not want to continue. − Others wanted socialism − Workshops could not accommodate all the unemployed (divisions in interest, limited revival g
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