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Lecture 10

Hist 106 Lecture 10.docx

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Simon Fraser University
HIST 106
Paul Garfinkel

Lecture 10: Migration, Mobility and Middle-class Mores (reading: chapter 24, pp. 724-751) Lecture questions: [1] Why were population growth and prosperity related? [2] Why did this prosperity affect class structures and family life? [3] Why did such rapid social change affect cultural life? The effect of the nineteenth century on the lives of the masses was increasing prosperity and rapid social change [1] Why were population growth and prosperity related? • Demography (study of population) 1870-1914 The population of Europe grows by half − In Western Europe growth is slowing − In Eastern and Southern Europe there is a population explosion 1900: Europe holds 27% of the world’s population and 7% of the land • Mortality goes DOWN − Medical discoveries − Social improvements (like Chadwick) − Diseases are being eliminated and reduced (like dysentery and cholera) − People are living longer and are more older people • Infant mortality goes DOWN − Food hygiene/pasteurized milk − Medicine • Birthrates in rural areas is HIGH − Excepting NW North Western Europe is relatively stagnant − Germany here is the exception (very industrialized but with high birthrates) − France birthrates are down a lot (some believe this is evidence of the evil of a republic) Why this decline in urban centers? Birth Control in Marriage • Fewer children are dying young, because families economically did not need to be as large • Instead of more labourers, children became more mouths to feed • Improves social mobility to have less children (economic advancement tied to being able to migrate to big cities). Migration • In places with stagnating industry or rural areas lots of people are leaving Europe • Portugal, Southern Italy, Ireland leaving for Americas • Eastern Europeans migrating • Jews/minorities leaving Conclusion: More people are living longer due to medicine and improved social conditions, less babies are dying, birthrates are high in rural areas. This boom was despite the fact that there were mass migrations and less children in the North West because of urbanization and birth control. [2] Why did this prosperity affect class structures and family life? Upper Middle Class • “new aristocrats” • Money made in banking, industry, and commerce • Money marked by acquiring houses in the city and the country Middle Class • Professionals/manufacturers/traders • Comfortable but lacking great accumulations of wealth • Great expansion of this class because industry creating new demands for experts and professionals, bureaucrats and administrators • Ability to educate defines the middle class Lower Middle Class • Salesmen, bookkeepers, clerks, teachers • Not propertied but eager to move up Middle Classes defined by.... − Ashared desire for a certain culture and way of life − Their food (more meat than working class) − Less percentage of total income spent on food and drink − Savings and expendable income − Domestic servants − Housing/clothing − Education (ability to purchase books, music, and travel) − Codes of morality (virtues) ie. hard work, discipline, refraining from vice, marital fidelity, sexual purity. Working Class • Physical labour • No servants • Have their own sense of hierarchy 1. Highly skilled workmen (foremen, craftsmen,) known as the labour aristocracy − 15% of workforce − Slightly less income than lower middle class − Threatened by mechanization to an extent − Saved by new industry (ship building etc.) − More puritanical in social val
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