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Lecture 11

Hist 106 Lecture 11.docx

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Simon Fraser University
HIST 106
Paul Garfinkel

Lecture 11: New Imperialism (chapters 25-26, pp. 754-805) S Lecture questions: [1] Why did governments try to contain “threats” to the social order at home? [2] Why was there a new round of European expansionism after 1880? [3] Why did militant nationalism contribute to war by 1914? • International rivalry in Europe 1880-1914 • Fear of mass politics • Threats of modernity • More militant nationalism [1] Why did governments try to contain “threats” to the social order at home? The threats of mass politics to national building Socialism • Competed with conservative government to win workers hearts • Marxists but Reformists were more common (abandoned revolution as a tactic) Why were socialists a threat? • Socialism is now international and more organized First International 1864 and the Second International 1884, who were made up of executives. Declared May Day as an international strike day. • They were more of a psychological threat to conservatism, imperialism, and militarism Roman Catholicism • Competed for loyalties with the state Anti-clericalism happening more and more by states Italy (unification) France (Second Republic) Germany (Kulturkampf, the attempt to break the hold of Catholic church in southern states) • The state wants to create a secular religion • Catholicism fights back to win the favour of workers (Leo XIII Rerum Novarum) by encouraging catholics to get involved in politics and encouraging socialist policies to keep church relevant. Social Catholicism. • Created a revival in the church and created their own parties − Rerum Novarum − Centre Party (Germany) − Revivalism (France) Feminism • Athreat because 50% of the population could easily undermine a state • Were mostly middle class (English) women who wanted education, employment, and ability to own land • Middle class evangelical Christians − Divorce, end of prostitution • The movement was moderate and limited − Lacked a broader base − Compromised because it was so moderate • The movement however, created a “crisis of masculinity − Women were deviant − Belief than any confusion of gender roles would create CHAOS! − Fear of homosexuality − Feminine fatal (devious woman usurping man’s power) What was the response to these three threats? (Socialism, feminism, Catholicism) Authoritarianism • To prevent threats from creating a crisis • Decide to co-opt social welfare (takes away the platform of socialists) • Penal reform to prevent crime (fear of confusion and rising crime rates) − Against alcoholics, repeat offenders • New theories on what causes crimes − Are people born criminals or are they a product of their social environment • Fear of urban mobs • Eugenics based on fear of the nation degenerating − More wrong than right people • To avoid this degeneration they wanted a stronger state (social imperialism) • The perceived threats were used to justify imperialism abroad (would create a stronger state) [2] Why was there a new round of European expansionism after 1880? New Imperialism Economic • Spurred by second wave of industrialization • New outlets to exploit and put capital into • New imperialism was an economic loser (new territories cannot buy manufactured goods as was assumed) • Wanted it as an outlet for surplus population (desire to colonize), because then people would not have to leave the British empire and benefit other countries. Political • Sign of national prestige • Seen as a military asset • No longer for economic enterprise • Becomes a national interest - aggressive nationalism • “civilizing mission” very popular • Way for nation states to create a false sense of national unity − Argued that colonies benefitted the lower class workers Technology • More is possible
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