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HIST 130
Luke Clossey

History 130 Lecture 1: Date Species Subsistence Culture Material culture 1,500,000BC Homo erectus from Hunting and gathering  Paleolithic (old stone) Basic tools, cleavers, elephant bones Africa women gather (have children), - 200,000BC spreads men hunt; equality? across Eurasia 250,000BC - Homo sapiens Hunting and gathering Bone tools, animal hides, etc. begin in Africa and - cave paintings for early years  spread out difficult to explain for sure what’s - by 50,000BC in happening; use modern Australia; huge understanding which may not be native animals accurate disappear - religion: reassurance for self? 10,000BC - 10,000BC: Americas Agricultural Revolution  -Neolithic (new stone) at - 700AD move from planting own berries and 10,000BC SE Asia to domesticating animals (own - population settled Madagascar; another form of genetic modification) - disease goes up (rats, 300 years for -beginning in Fertile Crescent manure) movement to (Eurasia) biodiversity, good - specialization goes up (not Madagascar from climate; goat, sheep, cows everyone necessary to Africa - also China; then Americas, farming)  beginning of - by 1,000AD cross Africa; cattle revolution moves inequality? the Pacific to Easter down south - bricks exactly the same Island - farmers were less healthy and size  workmanship worked harder  why? - copper Unclear: extinct or migrated food source; more people, more responsibility, need to depend on source - but irrigation!! And plows 2,000 BC Civilization: cities, writing, and bronze Bronze originally used for military Writing originated in Fertile Crescent 1500BC  first alphabet, consonants only; first vowels in Greek 900BC Cities: more settlement, more population, more specialization and disease  incredibly unhealthy Uruk (Fertile Crescent)  70,000 people; the size of downtown core, Vancouver – about the same amount of trash per person Cities close together, lots of trade Global depression 1000BC?  FC and India Lecture 2: Look up spread of peoples; globalization Axial Age: identified 1949 by Jaspers  says that there’s a time around 500BC (between 800-200) where all great religions are created; intellectual and religious change Elijah 1000BC; Zoroaster and Upanishads 800-500; Confucius and Buddha 500; Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Zhuangai, Mencius 500-200BC - Possibly because of lots of different warring states, so lots of different opportunities - States are aware of philosophy and knowledge as helpful and important: thinkers can advise on how to rule and kick ass Let us all reason out what to do here, for the hereafter. Us – reflexivity: thinking about ourselves, our existence, meaning of life; ‘in their head’ All – professionalized thinkers, but they’re extending the responsibility to everyone else too o Junzi: noble with money; Confucius makes it about knowledge and thinking o 4 Noble Truths in Buddhism, originally from Aryans/Nobles/Rich folk changed to intellectual Reason out – use reason and logic to understand/interpret things: don’t believe things because they’re said by authority; believe them because you’ve experienced their truth; Elijah’s God experiment  bring fire down, whichever God succeed wins All reason out – public debates, different answers, different solutions What to do here – agency: action; we are capable of action and should do good things that have good consequences o Kamma: action; you are capable of making actions, and actions have consequences  later becomes ‘karma’ about consequences , – disjuncture; gap between this world and the next: actions will have actions, maybe in the after-world Instead of living life – how to live life? o Bhavana: what you should do (Buddhism)  from joy to bliss; originally agriculture o Carpe diem – seize/harvest the day 3 century BC: two societies - West: rural, farmers, aristocracies, strong fighter people - East: cities, disease, weak, cultured, intellectual - Civil war; the west gets wiped out; all united - 4,000,000 square kms - 3 solutions to dealing with size o 1. Infantry o 2. Infrastructure (walls and roads) o 3. Cultural solidarity: values, vocab - Foreign religions ruin 3, cavalry ruins 1 - Aristocracy and monasteries survive Applies to both China and Rome Rome: (27BC-400sAD) Parthians: 247BC – 224AD Mauryan: 321BC-185BC +Kushan : 1 AD – 200s AD Qin (221BC-206BC) and Han (206BC-220AD) 1AD-200AD: four empires existing at the SAME TIME OMG Silk Road: awful - More than one road - Some of them are very wet (ocean) - More than silk is being circulated – spices, metals, little things, wool, glass, cotton, food, peaches from China, walnuts and grapes from Europe, religion, disease (measles and smallpox) o Transport of POWs; not a lot of people movement Christianity ruins Rome (empire) Buddhism ruins China (empire) st G-BOOM #1  ‘globalization’?; economic growth (boom!); 1 time this can happen across Eurasia JESUS!!!!  casting out demons comes from Partitians, not Rome G-Boom #2  Dark Ages in Europe; Byzantine Empire in far East (surviving Roman empire), but more importantly…  Islam: Umayyad 661-750  Islam: Abbasid 750-1259  Chinese Buddhism: Tang 618-907 – expansion, open to other influence until 751  Battle of Tours: 732 – Islam not going into Europe  Battle of Talas River: 751 – Islam not going into China (though China lost the battle)  G-Boom #2 661-907: strong Islamic state, strong Chinese state Byzantines: 25 million people; 30 million grain units Abbasid: 20 million people, 35 million grain  biggest GDP Tang: 50+ million people, 69+ million grain  People are travelling long distances to trade, permanently – merchants; many Muslims, Jews, Nestorian Christians (humanity of Jesus emphasized); religious people, artisans, soldiers, slaves, etc.  China Exports: o Silk o Porcelain o Paper o Oranges – portable vitamin C; before, Europeans could only go so far abroad without dying  China Imports o Coral buttons from Sicily o Religion – Christianity doesn’t work out due to translation issues (?) o Spices (from India) o Sugar and cotton – could have industrialized following, but sugar isn’t much of an attraction, and silk beats cotton – missed opportunity  Song dynasty 960-1269 – weak dynasty, but intellectually and economically strong; robust economy, lots of industry o Buddhist monasteries (45% income from interest, 32% from donations, 23% from agriculture; early example of a non-kin (not related to you) corporate body) o Used much more iron; same rate of increase as England before industrialization; same number of coins in circulation as Canada today Why no Industrial Revolution? o Don’t need more things: have silk, etc. o Huge population, huge numbers of labour – discouraged innovation o Foreign invaders G-Boom #3, 13 century - Pax Mongolica - Need a lot of land to get enough grass for horses; eventually a leader appears and unites them into a unit to conquer other tribes - Begins with Temujin – nok hor – from Buddhism; non-kin corporate body o In 1206 recognized as leader of all the tribes o Last tribe to join is already semi-civilized; bring writing, information, advice o Self-pillage - Marco Polo; a few travellers, religion - ‘no more barriers exist’, brotherhood among people PEOPLE IN 1400s 1 2 3 4 Hunter Gather Pastoralism Cultivators - Hands Cultivators - Plows Where? North America Mongolia Mid-West Africa Europe Australia Northern Africa, -Sahara New Guinea India Parts of South America East coast of Africa Northern Europe China Kalahari Desert Asia Americas Indonesia Northern Russia Scandinavia Niger River Ethiopia How old? 1,500,000 10,000BC 10,000BC 5,000 BC Move? Nomadic Nomadic Sedentary Sedentary 2 2 2 2 Density? 0.5 people/km ; 25-30 1 person/km 5 people/km 50 people/km people/group Eco-cool? Yes Kinda (soil erosion, etc) So-so No %population 1% 14% 7% 78% %area 15% of planet’s SA 33% 36% 16% Technology Fire, dogs, tools Fire, tools Fire, tools Guns, aqueducts, plows, fire, tools Growth Rate .011% Work 2.5 days a week; 15 Patrilineal: descent Plows turns old crops and hours: survival, don’t storethrough the father weeds into nutrients, food brings in 2 and H2O Biodiversity Lots Low; monoculture Biomass Lots Low Early Modern 1400-1800 Demography: study of populations  Census  Not necessarily accurate… o Nanchung 1412: 1,126,119 o Nanchung 1492: 1,126,119  Population numbers may not be calculated by counting people, but by density, families, monks, etc.; also, more people = more taxes Population  Pre-Ag: 1,000,000  Post-Ag: 10,000,000  Civilization: 100,000,000  Industrialization, ca.1800: 1,000,000,000  Nielsenian Age (1926-2010): 2-6 billion th th st Population dips during 14 century (plague); 17 century (war, plague); 21 century (?)  Malthusian Cycles, by Malthus 1798  Around 1800, transition: no more bumps… o Suggests that there are several options:  Arithmetic growth: 3, 6, 9, 12 – adding a number each time  Geometric growth: 2, 4, 8, 16 – multiplying each time o Population grows geometrically; food grows arithmetically o At some point, they will intersect; population will have to drop: positive checks o Stopping population growth before intersect: preventative check Urban Apocalypse Birth Rate - Menarche: the age at which a woman is biologically able to have children o Hunter-gatherers… age 10?; legally, 10? o 10,000-1800… 13.5; legally, 13.5 o Industrialization… 16; legally, 16 o USA… 12.3; legally, 18 - Post-partum non-susceptibility; #1 factor o Marriage; procreation is important, marriages are arranged for this sake, and if no children are produced the marriage can be dissolved; male homosexual activity is okay as long as it’s not exclusive; female homosexual activity varies by culture, but sex outside of marriage is a no-no o Europe: odd patterns  moral restraint  Late marriage; in most of the world, 80% married by age 20  Celibacy is high; 12%  Little sex outside of marriage; 2% illegitimacy o China: marital restraint  Marry young  Takes 3 years on average for first baby; 1.5 between children; stop having children 6 years before Europe  Some celibacy, but not nearly as much Mortality Rate - 3.5% death rate – very high - In early modern period, lots of WAR and STARVATION  INFECTIOUS DISEASES o Today, degenerative diseases are more likely, also motor vehicle accidents - Infant mortality: 0 =35; 5 =45; 30% infant mortality rate o Youth is tied to death (EM); today, old age is tied to death - global plow-lands are all connected; most cities are in the global plow-lands - Far-West Periphery; Near-West Periphery; Indo-Gangetic Core (densest); Yang-Yellow Core (most people); everything else ‘boondocks’/mountains - Europe is not very populated, ergo Asia/China is the core and Europe is the Periphery - China is a big quarter of world pop; India is 25, Europe is about 23; everything else is the rest Globalization? China? Biggest population, centre of the world o Zheng He (Ming) o 1405, begins a series of naval journeys; 62 ships, 27,000 men, 7 voyages o Travelling widely, but into well-known areas: India, Arabia, Indonesia  China projecting power and setting up trade networks o ZH’s ship: 400 feet; Columbus: 85 feet Europe? o 1453, Constantinople falls to Turks (mostly) o After end of Pax Mongolica, Europe keeps sending bishops to China, but no idea if they show up o 1492, Columbus sailed the ocean blue o 1497, Cabot(o; Italian for England) to Newfoundland o 1498, de Gama directly to India o 1521-1522?, circumnavigation of the globe  Slave from Melaka (SE Asia), Panglima Awang, sails to Europe, and then with Magellan to Melaka, and again to Europe o 1642, Tasman to Australia o 1770s, Cook in America Globalization Themes 1. National loyalties are weak. State boundaries are soft. 2. Ortelius – Theatrum Orbis Terrarium in 1570; first modern atlas 3. Founding of Manila in the Phillipines: June 24, 1571 – regular trans-pacific trade 4. Convergence of bimetallic ratio – ratio of the value of silver to gold; around 1640s, 1:8  1500s:  Spain: 1:13  China: 1:5 5. Global companies  Can purchase cheapest materials, can ship them to wherever is more expensive, etc.  Can start wars! 6. Columbian and Magellan Exchanges  crops and materials moving across Atlantic (C) and Pacific (M)  Old  New  Horses  Cattle  Coffee  Sugarcane  Oranges  Bananas  Pineapples  New  Old  Potatoes  Tomatoes  Chili peppers  Tobacco  Chocolate  Diseases  Syphilis o 1494, W Europe o 1498, India o 1505, China  Smallpox and measles o 90% population decrease in certain areas in Americas o Nobody wants natives to die: baptising, labour Balance of Trade: Surplus vs. Deficit Americas: Silver Africa: Slaves W. Europe: manufactured goods (but not much, really) Silver to Europe, (few) goods to America, slaves to America, guns to Africa (triangular trade) E Europe: timber, grain to W Europe in return for silver SW Asia is a trans-shipment region S Asia: cotton, spices to W Europe in return for silver Silver from S Asia to SE Asia for spices and rice China: silk and porcelain; to everyone else for silver o Balance of trade surplus in respect to the entire world Japan: Silver to China for silk and porcelain Silk and porcelain to Americas from China for Silver African economy does not use silver and so doesn’t need it; use seashells off Maldives o We just take their slaves, so why pay Potosi: big silver mountain in Bolivia Japanese stop trade in the 1630s East Africa’s got slaves and ivory Manufacturing Commodification o Most people are living in terms of subsistence  commercial, buying and selling in bulk Extensive growth: growth in production as well as people, if people are the limiting factor; ratio does not increase with more people Intensive growth: more intelligent ways of production, ratio increases Early Modern Period: growth correlates to population  extensive growth; GDP is about the same everywhere on the planet Cash crops (tobacco, sugar, coffee, cattle, sheep), new crops (potatoes, peanuts) China’s no longer producing enough food to support itself ~17 century 80% farmers 10% artisans – guilds; not a lot of occupational mobility 10% merchants - Artisans: raw materials – tools=means of production  final product th - 16 century Europe Capitalist: raw materials – means of production=labour  final product Artisans become either capitalists or workers. 16 century Europe: population is going up - Prices are going up - Wages are going down - Real wages (adjusted for inflation and prices) are going down really, really fast - Profit is going up really, really fast Why not China? 1. Material reason: if you have profit, that profit is invested in LAND  no capitalists, no wage labourers 2. Mental/Psychological reason: merchants = parasites 3. Simple reason: strong economy – most people, biggest economy, change is not necessary Slaves - Voluntary vs. involuntary o In Islam, it is illegal to make a slave free without their permission - Household slavery vs. plantation/production slavery - China 5% pop, India <15%, Korea 1/3-1/2; Africa ½, Kenya 90% Renaissance and Reformation - Easy to compare economy; difficult to compare art and religion - Eurocentric viewpoints previously Renaissance: rebirth o Looking back on former masters, and ‘rebirthing’ the Axial age o Humanism < humanitas (humanities) o Old: scholasticism  truth o New: humanism  eloquent  Importance of man, ancient learning, humanities  Goal: virtue (spiritual, uplifting, mind and body), then relevance & careers o 1450s+  Greek texts due to fall of Constantinople in 1453; scholars and texts flee to the West o New output  printing press by Gutenberg (ca. 1440s) o Gentile da Fabriano, 1423  bright, crowded, bling, birth o Masaccio, 1428  death, realism; first painter to produce depth in a painting Linear Perspective: key change in art for the Renaissance Sultaniyeh: dome of Persia? o Global renaissance?  Italy, Timurid Asia, Mughal India, Ming China  In cities, secular, innovative, free  1. Secular  #1 trend in Renaissances  2. Artisan  artiste, becomes really cool and serious  3. Vernacular  people begin to write in the vernacular instead of formal  Dante writes in Italian, not Latin  Bhakti: talk to God via vernacular  Sufism: a group of Muslim mystics, emphasize close personal connection with God, use vernacular  Chinese: Axial Age poets did rhyme!  4. Realism (?)  things should look real Reverse perspective: perspective is reversed… on purpose? Chapel of St. Anthony sculpture… travels and has $$? Religion vs. Polytropia - Religion: exclusive lay membership o Founder o Canon (Scripture): authoritative texts o Monotheism o Creed: what you believe in - Politropic: ‘many’ & ‘to bend’; no exclusivity of religion o Become ‘religions’ but aren’t really, mostly due to competition, later due to equality Reformation: before R, death! Lots of death! Obsession with death! - Sin, punishment or indulgence or purgatory - Sold lots of indulgences, the money for which goes back to the Pope in Rome - Martin Luther (1483-1546)  objects to indulgences, and, uh, fixes the church o Scripture alone, faith alone (not Pope) Short Answer quiz: hold TA’s hand, walk them through the argument, make your case deliberately and in great detail - Linear perspective is significant, and something special really is happening in Europe; world history isn’t about winners and losers, it’s simply about being able to tell a story that makes sense about the subject; comparing doesn’t work, but connections do th - European discovery of linear perspective and realism migrates out of Europe and to the rest of the world; 16-18 centuries. o In China, western art becomes really cool for a short period of time o A lot of hesitancy in Russia: still not very realistic (when model is used: Jesus looks like a fat German; def not realistic) o Africa and Ethiopia, lots of European influence – signatures are a western sort of thing, imported into Ethiopia o Succeeds in some places, fails in others Religion: area of religion correlates to the area of plowlands - Meanwhile, China’s got plowland but no single religion - Sahara has religion but no plowlands Lots of people in one place = more ideas in one place, people specializing in things like religion, want God to bless crops, people are easier to control if they all believe in one thing, religion could tie in with education and better ideas, it’s easier to tax people But no one really knows why this correlation exists. Reformation: follows the Black Death - Lots of people are dead, salvation is very important, people are obsessed with death - Indulgence is something you can purchase to get out of punishment for sin; you could also take a vow to become a pilgrim, relics (a piece of a saint, or something that has touched a saint: Jesus’ cross/splinters of it, straw from his manger, bones) - Martin Luther becomes so terrified of death during a thunderstorm that he takes a vow; obsessed with sin, scripture, faith, not the Pope o Excommunicated in 1521 - Consequences: 1. Rise in the vernacular (conversational language); Bible becomes important, is translated so everyone has access to it… this isn’t always a good thing (peasants questioning authority), so church wants to control it. Also poetry in the vernacular (Catholics), intense, romantic, often homoerotic (? Towards Jesus, who is male, most writers are male…) 2. Secularism; there is a change in what a vocation is  Pre-reformation, vocation: calling from God  Reformation, vocation: job  worthy, noble calling, whatever it is; it’s fine to make money, just be good at what you do; in fact, making money and being successful may mean that God’s favoring you  Max Weber (1904-1905), wrote The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism  old nobility, purpose was to spend money; new capitalism, purpose was to accumulate money  Northern Europe becomes more capitalist than South; South is Catholic, North is Protestant… which one’s failing atm? - Catholic Response: Counter-Reformation / Catholic Reformation o Doctrines stay the same, but procedures change - John Calvin is another reformer - Reformation super-charges the printing press in the vernacular - Society of Jesus (Jesuits): took a vow to do missions wherever the Pope asks  first to go global - Global Reformation 1. Expansion: Islam is particularly widespread, Buddhism… but Christianity goes faster around the world than ever before; leads to syncretism: syn-together, cret-a hard block, so things coming together in a hard block, used to describe cultures blending together – communication problems: Jesus was crucified, lots of human sacrifice in Americas… oh, we were just doing it wrong!  In China, naked criminal on a cross isn’t okay, so they just don’t mention the crucifixion a. Jesuits (Catholic) b. Naqshbandi (Islam) c. Kalmyks (Buddhism), tribe originating in today’s northwest China; running out of land, migrate to Europe (Volga River) and start their own republic… and start converting people to Buddhism. Conquered Paris during Napoleonic wars. 2. Canon emphasis  Wahabbi (look this up, can’t remember)  Tibetan Buddhists – expanding canon, all others restricting 3. Apocalypse  Expectation of one is dominant all over the world  Columbus figures out that world was created in 5344BC and will last 7000 years, end in 1656… must discover everything and give everyone a chance to convert!  Aztecs know that a deity will return every 52 years  Mughal India: Jesuits show up in SE Asia, they already know world’ about to end: 1581-622= 989, almost a full millennium  White Lotus, Levi, 1666, Sabbatai (Ottoman empire) – Jewish Prophecy Imperial Support – empires love this - Guangyin: Chinese version of Avalokitesvara (Dalai Lama is a reincarnation) - G-Boom 2, moves to China, 13 century G-Boom, in a woman with a child, mass produced in porcelain and sold in Mexico Scientific Revolution in Europe - Medicinal theatres: people can watch surgery being done - Switch from a geocentric to a heliocentric systems - Astronomy: o Axial Age: Aristotle, Earth at the centre, then the moon, planets, sun  Uniform circular motion (Aristotle)  constant speed, perfect circle… more beautiful than scientific o G-Boom #1: Ptolemy accounts for why stars get bigger, smaller, move  Epicycle: a cycle on top of a cycle  Eccentric: Earth is not at the centre, it’s a little bit off  Equant: motion is not at a uniform speed, but the angle is uniform th Geocentric o 13 Century: Al-Tusi; may have betrayed town to Mongols for ability to do astronomy  Epicycles on epicycles  Geocentric o Copernicus 15 th  Epicycles on epicycles  Heliocentric - Math o Robert Holcot (d.1349)  Assume free will, mathematical contradiction, therefore no free will o After scientific revolution, math becomes ‘trashy’ and cannot be used for things like free will  Secular - Theory and Institutions o Europe: rationalism (theory); corporate university (nokhor, institution) o China: organic society-nature (universe does not run according to abstract laws; society and nature are bound together; social activity has effect on nature); state (corporations are bad; Confucian classics supreme) o Islamicate: reason < revelation (Quran is perfect, reason is flawed; there are no laws of the universe, it’s just because God has habits); madrasa (charitable religious institution, not corporate, bound to one scholar, not university) o Europe is better fit for a scientific revolution than the other two - Europe: o Galileo (17 century)  Trash math: math can be applied to the natural world o Francis Bacon (17 century)  Trash lab: it is possible to replicate nature in a lab o Descartes (17 century)  Skepticism: the only thing I can know is that I exist, because I’m the one doubting things… I think, therefore I am o Science becomes public (17 century) States and Empires - Empire: modern term for big, complex state - Big, stable, efficient - 600 independent states in 1450; 25 in 1800 o Personal union  one ruler o Guns  infantry used pikes, sieges are expensive - Winner: king/emperor - Losers: nobility (monopoly on fighting ability) & non-Europeans who fight for slaves, not land Income of EM state: - Royal domain, monopolies, loans, indirect taxation, direct taxation Expenditures of EM State: - 75% military/war: guns; noblesmercenaries - Salaries/bureaucracy  salaries, oversight, rotation: 1371, Ming has 5488 officials  mid-17 century has 70,400 officials - Propaganda – sovereignty, symbols, ceremonies, art - Missionaries: Spanish theology: Jesus  pope  king of Spain  encomenderos  priests 3 Consequences of Empire 1. Not much  no infrastructure to control people 2. Intensification of land use 3. Decline of pastoralism  Nerchisk 1689, China and Russia Population up, aggressive states, global market  expansion of empire - “empty land” - “frontier ethic”  backed by state  Bengal: settlers, Hindu merchants, Sufi Leaders - mosques Enlightenment - Kant (1784): “Man’s emergence from self-incurred immaturity” (the inability to use one’s own understanding without others’ guidance) - Simply: o Reason reveals nature allowing progress towards happiness.  Reason: skepticism, not following strictly based on authority; vs. superstition, ignorance, prejudice, extremism, particularism  Reason is universal  Universe is rational (Pope)  Society can be rational  Nature: natural is good; natural laws; noble savage; natural economy  Progress: humanity perfectible  Happiness: “greatest happiness of the greatest number” - When? 1686+ ; first coffee shop in Paris - Where? Paris, France; Britain; US; Europe Geology: o Fossils o Erosion o Hutton (1726-1797) History: o Flood  Chinese history goes back 1440 years further; no flood  Bible is not universal; Bible is universal in a very particular way Religion: o Deism  God exists  Punishment and rewards, so behave  Thomas Jefferson cuts out all the irrational bits of the Bible o Increase in skepticism, atheism, tolerance Knowledge: o John Locke (1690)  tabula rasa / blank slate; Muslim origins  Toleration increased  Education more important Government: o Constitutionalism  Natural law, natural rights, manmade laws (social contract)  Tradition and church  artificial government o Enlightened Absolutism  Monarch has absolute authority, and will do what is best for the unenlightened  Joseph II (r.1780s)  universal, efficient, tolerant, but no monasteries; taxation proportional to income; no serfdom  Germany Metric System: o 1791 o All people, all time Hedonistic Calculus o 1789 Bentham o Calculus… for… fun. o Intensity; duration; extent; certainty Universal Enlightenment Ram Mohan Roy  1774-1833, Bengal - Bengal: terror for the Mughal Empire before they figure out how to drain swamps and make it useful - “Bengali Renaissance” - Roy wants to remove superstition from Hinduism and return to spiritualism  reason - Women’s rights to remarry, own property; against polygamy and widow-burning  natural individual rights - Wrote on Jesus; emphasized teachings instead of miracles (same in Tibet) Abolition of Slavery - Slavery is reciprocal; even abolitionists are moderate - 1807 – Britain slave trade - 1865 – USA (1918) - 1888 – Brazil - 1910 – China - 1946 – UN - 1962 – Arabia - 1981 – Mauritania Revolution! - Revolutions in the Atlantic world 1776-1826 - Bengali-Silesian / American Revolution: Austria (France) vs. Prussia (Britain) o 7 Years’ War 1756-63 o Treaty of Paris 1763 o Prussia wins o Ends ‘salutary neglect’ of colonies o 1765+ direct taxes - Bengal 1770-1771: famine o Brit East India Company drops in profits; appeals to British government for help o Boston Tea Party 1773 o 1783 - French Revolution! o Icelandic volcano changes weather patterns o Famine o French funding American Revolution o 1791 Louis 16 arrested  constitutional government o 1799 Napoleon  Goes to Egypt to get to India o 1815 Waterloo - Haiti Revolution o 1/3 of French foreign trade o 2/3 of French foreign investment o Saint Domingue; 500,000(black) slaves and 32,000 white o 1791 rebellion; Royalist o 1804 independence of ‘Haiti’ - Mexico o Spanish colony o 1808, Napoleon occupies Spain and captures the king o 1812 Spain liberal constitution o 1820 return of the king, with a liberal constitution, limited powers o 1821 royalist, conservative revolution in Mexico (anti-enlightenment) - Brazil o Portuguese colony o 1807, Napoleon takes Portugal o Royals evacuated by Britain, go to Rio de Janeiro  Rio becomes the capital, free trade o 1820, Portugal: liberal revolution o 1822, Brazil declares independent Empire of Brazil; king’s son becomes emperor - 1775-1820 o Europe  Enlightenment: French, Irish (1798), Serbia,  Anti-Enlightenment: Vendee (France), Dos de Mayo (Spain)  Jihad: Mansur (Chechnya)  Saxons in Germany o Americas  Enlightenment: Haiti, USA, Whisky (USA), La Paz, Grenada  Anti-Enlightenment: 4 Latin-American revolutions  Peasants in Peru o Asia  Enlightenment: n/a  Jihad: Ma Mingxin (against the Manchu in China, part of Naqshibandi); Padri War (Sumatra) o Africa  Enlightenment: n/a  Jihads: “Fulani Jihads”, Usman dan Fodio 1804-1815 - Enlightenment is about using reason to determine laws, etc  self-evident – either from unspoken assumptions, Locke and Kant??? - Wahhabism is about starting with the Koran and using reason to get laws, etc Late Modern World  1800 o Industrialization  Europe/Britain  1750: 1 worker – 1lb of cotton – 3 weeks to process  1790: 1 worker – 1lb of cotton – 3 hours  1830: 1 worker – 1lb of cotton – 1.5 hours  Machines – ‘ghost workers’; equivalent of 400 real people  Energy sources – originally organic/solar, then fossil fuels in LMW (coal, oil, natural gas)  1700: Europe, China, India all have ~23% of world GDP  1820: Europe (26), China (33), India (16)  1880: Europe (40), China (14), India (11)  Why Europe?  Freedom of trade – Confucianism is anti-trade? But Buddhist traders….  No nomad raids  Rationality ?  Moral restraint ?  Absolute concept of property ?  Why Europe? – world historians  Markets – India has a high agricultural yield; prices go down, wages go down, cotton textile prices go down = almost global market dominance - England: 1707 protectionism goes up esp. in Manchester, so production surge in 1820/30s - Natural free markets!!! India is unable to do protectionism; Britain is in control of much of India; India de- industrializes, ruralisation (cotton, opium from Bengal) - China: balance of trade surplus in silk & porcelain increase because of tea; opium… 90% of world production going to China; silver starts flowing out of China; China develops balance of trade deficit; possibly a reason why it’s feasible to abandon slavery; social pro
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