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[script of Lec_1] Islam and the Ottoman World.docx

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Simon Fraser University
HIST 151
Paul Sedra

Islam and the Ottoman World 5/14/2012 8:40:00 PM  Ottoman Empire :-  is the relevant rolling structure for the Arab Middle East (for much th of Middle East) during the 90 century and before. The Turkish term for Ottoman is “Osmanli”. And this is derived from the name of the finder of this densely (a follow called Osman).  Osman led a force of men no meds (which known as ghazis or warriors)  One Ottoman poet described ghazis as :- o The instrument of the religion of god. o A servant of god who purifies the earth from the filth of polytheism (multiple gods). o The sword of god. o The protector in the refuge of the believers. o If he died (do not believe it, he actually has internal live).  The term itself “ghazi” has its origin: o In the term of holy war “gaza”.  The Ottoman expansion (the ottoman conquest) start motivated by this “holy war”. The desire of Muslims to concur non-Muslim lands. Or in the terms of the day to expand what was cold the “the Dar AL Islam” which meant to point to the world of Islamic states at the expense of what was cold the “the Dar AL Harb” which means the house of war (Where people where refuse to convert to Islam).  There is a tendency among o Western travellers. o Western scholars. o Western absolvers. Of the Middle East to speak about: o monolithic unchanging Islam. o monolithic unchanging orient.  Everything East of the west.  There are people who believe that one can generalize in a meaningful way about the whole of the east. o About the whole of Islam, for instance. o There are scholars who feel that there are some justification in taking about Oriental despotism (Orientalism).  General tendency to despot a government in the east.  When looking at the Ottomans through this Orientalism it doesn’t help us much to understand what the Ottomans all about. o It can not explain why the Ottomans were successful in their conquest …  The most significant of which was the conquest of constant to Nobel “the capital of byzantine empire” in 1453. If this orientalism doesn’t help so how do we understand the success of this conquest? There were several factors involved …  Under their balking rollers  Christens had a very harsh treatment and many of them believed that they will be treated better under the Ottoman rollers than under the Byzantine rollers or balking rollers.  The ottomans savvy use of gunpowder o The Ottomans were called the empire “one of the gunpowder empires”.  Their massive usage of gunpowder given them an advantage when approaching places.  They simply crush the walls. o He crushed an empire that have lasted 11 hundred years. o Leadership: Mehmed the concurred motivated his crows before facing any enemy. Other factors :- Once the Ottomans concur a land they will have several challenge:  How to roll in these diverse lands with very diverse cultural traditions over which they now rolling. o Although Islam and issues of faith are somewhat important to understand how the Ottomans mounted this task (but these issues are not the whole story).  The rolling structures of the empire that they build o Directed by a cadre of slaves “Not what we know today, a different kind of slaves”. Slaves who were …  Devoted to the powerful sultan.  The empire had its origin in front hear state which was rolled by the Turkish family descended from a particular tribes known as “Oghuz”. o What holds the ottomans tribesman together was Turkish ethnic solidarity. And part of it had to do with …  Establishment of imperial court.  The forms.  The simples of which had a Turkish infliction.  The language of imperial court was the Ottomans Turkish.  The language of command in the military was Turkish.  The language of government administration was Turkish.  In order to reach the upper echelons in the administration of the ottomans empire one had to speak Turkish and to emprise a distinctive Ottoman culture. Note: despite the focus on Turkish language, the Ottomans pride themselves on their acceptance of diversities within their rounds.  As the Ottomans came to conquer various lands o They often left the local customs and indeed laws in respect of the local communities. o It was a policy. Why they would conquer these land if there were not going to impose their own laws and symbols ? this was a distinctly practical policy because they faced a challenge of holding together an empire that stretched ultimately over a vast lands and rolled in people with very different histories, languages, and traditions. This diversity was a factor in finding a roles that goes with the Ottomans. There was a certain Islamic laws which called “The Sharia” to which all communities had to adheres …  But it never prompted the ottomans to run roughshod from the local communities whether they’re Muslims, Christians or Jews.  In fact, The sultan explosively recruited the Christian children to enter his service as slaves. o Not slaves as known in Canada and United States, not slaves as we traditionally associate with the term.  This is not Imposition of indignity, but rather as a sort of recruitment.  They will have the opportunity to rise to the highest ranks of the Ottoman state. Why the ottomans would recruit the Christians from the Balkans in an explicitly Muslims empi
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