Egypt Under Mehmed Ali 5/15/2012 2:54:00 PM
Mohammed Ali :-
Ottoman Turkish rendering (Mehmed Ali).
o Based on his concept with the ottoman empire.
Arabic rendering (Mohammed Ali).
o Based on his concept on Egypt.
This man has a relationship with Egypt and the Ottoman empire.
The Arabic laundering of the name :-
Tend to identify Mohammed Ali as the founder of the modern Egypt.
A visionary to whom attribute the geneses of the independent
Egyptian state and nation that we know today.
The Turkish rendering of the name :-
Caution against such a sanguine view of this man.
They insist that we have to understand Mehmed Ali within an
Ottoman imperial context.
They reject the notion that the finding of independent Egypt were
figured in Mehmed Ali plans as a vice roll.
There is a little doubt that this man was a savvy and often ruthless
leader who aimed to secure control of this wealthy province of
Egypt for himself and for his family after him.
He employed a verity of means to accomplish that aim and among
o The development of schools.
o A monopoly based agricultural policy.
o A well disciplined, well structured, army.
The context of Mehmed Ali :- The French under napoleon had invaded and occupied Egypt in
The man who would become the basha, the valley, the governor
(Mehmed Ali) he arrived in Egypt in 1801 …
o As part of the effort to expel the French from Egypt
o As part of an Albanian force that was intended to rescue
Egypt away from the French and back into Ottoman control.
After the defeat of French (the British were cooperating with the Ottomans )
there was a void in the political field in Egypt.
This was a void that various of forces wanted to fill.
o The British were on seen.
o The Ottomans.
o The Mamluks.
They were the former rollers of Egypt.
Who proceeded the French invasion.
All of these various forces wanted to fill that political void.
Mehmed Ali …
o Spent his first decade in the country manipulating various
contingences to secure political advantage.
Most important among them a group of people were
called “Cairo Notables”.
They were frustrated with the persistent failure of
the Ottomans to give the province of Egypt some
motocome of stability.
In or der to do business they needed this
By 1811 …
The basha (Mohammed Ali as we know him) had consolidated his
control of Egypt in quite spectacular fashion by murdering no fewer
than 74 of the most prominent Mamluks at the citadel in Cairo. Note: The base of this lecture is the following 3 and half decades …
* A scholar called Afaf Lutfi Al-Sayyid Marsot “Egypt in the reign of
Mohammed Ali” ..
Had an extraordinary influence in middle eastern studies.
Had an extraordinary influence in Egypt studies particularly.
Why it is important that Marsot select the Arabic rendering
rather than the Turkish ?
o In using Mohammed Ali (The Arabic rendering which is the
native language of the vast majority of Egyptians) she seeks
to counter up an image of a leader who has his eyes on Egypt
rather on the other Ottoman empire.
o Permit Marsot to create a bound in her readers mind between
Mohammed Ali and the Egyptians.
o To label the basha Mohammed Ali almost suggest that this
man speaks Arabic “He didn’t speak Arabic !”
He was of an Albanian descent.
His language was an Ottoman Turkish.
She acknowledge it but she proceed the claim …
“Mohammed Ali put Egypt in the path of
And part of this self recognition is to have a
separate identity from other Muslims and
A governor of a near province would find Egypt
rich enough but the roller of the state needs to
develop his resources as much as possible to
render the country self sufficient and capable of
expansion of its own merits not as part of a larger
Mohammed Ali wasn’t nearly the governor of another
Ottoman province. He aspire to roll a state.
And aspiring to independent from the Ottomans in
this way he led the Egyptians to think of
themselves as distinct from the Ottomans.
Let’s take this as a given for the moment
If the aim of Mohammed Ali has is indeed that of an
independent state, as Marsot suggest, then what absolutely
indispensable to accomplish that aim ?
o Above all An affective military force (Above all).
For that he needed two things …
He got the men from the Egyptian country side.
At this point we see the introduction of
conscription where by prisons throughout
the Nile valley were gathered together and
forced to service as solders in Mohammed
Ali’s Military campaigns.
By 1830, the basha had a standing force of
no fewer than 53,000 men (by slandered of
the day it was impressive). At his disposal.
He got the methods largely from European
Military training manuals were translated
from European languages into Arabic.
European Experts were brought into the
country to help instill in Mohammed Ali’s
officer core a sense of discipline (a sense of
regimentation). However (and this was a great concern on
the basha’s part) introducing European
exports into Egypt in a lasting bases would
nearly result in replacing dependence on the
Ottomans with dependence on Europeans.
Given that Marsot was arguing that independence was the aim, to
accomplish this independence, Mohammed Ali saw to develop
indigenes military capacities (indigenes technical capacities).
o Indeed the basha preferred to export young Ottomans and
Egyptians to Europe rather than import Europeans into Egypt.
o Because those young Ottomans, Those young Egyptians, who
the basha sent, they could acquire the necessary skills and
the necessary knowledge to build up indigenes institutions on
Institutions that would send new generations of
Egyptians to serve in the military, to serve as
o Then there will be a development on a various educational
missions, missions dispatched to Europe, and shortly after the
return of these missions we see a local institutions
o For instance,
A school for medicine.
A school for languages.
If the military is in focus here, improving the performance of the
military, disciplining the military, regimenting the military, why
would you develop a school for medicine?
Solders get hurts so they need doctors to keep them alive.
There is a problem of epidemic disease.
o The disease was the most problematic illness is syphilis (a
sexually transmitted disease). There were entire entourages and families, in some
cases, would follow the military to campaigns.
Facilitated the spread of syphilis resulted of great loses
of men in these military campaigns
This became a priority for military to develop indigenes