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[Script of Lec_2] Egypt Under Mehmed Ali.docx

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Simon Fraser University
HIST 151
Paul Sedra

Egypt Under Mehmed Ali 5/15/2012 2:54:00 PM  Mohammed Ali :-  Ottoman Turkish rendering (Mehmed Ali). o Based on his concept with the ottoman empire.  Arabic rendering (Mohammed Ali). o Based on his concept on Egypt.  This man has a relationship with Egypt and the Ottoman empire. The Arabic laundering of the name :-  Tend to identify Mohammed Ali as the founder of the modern Egypt.  A visionary to whom attribute the geneses of the independent Egyptian state and nation that we know today. The Turkish rendering of the name :-  Caution against such a sanguine view of this man.  They insist that we have to understand Mehmed Ali within an Ottoman imperial context.  They reject the notion that the finding of independent Egypt were figured in Mehmed Ali plans as a vice roll.  There is a little doubt that this man was a savvy and often ruthless leader who aimed to secure control of this wealthy province of Egypt for himself and for his family after him.  He employed a verity of means to accomplish that aim and among these … o The development of schools. o A monopoly based agricultural policy. o A well disciplined, well structured, army. The context of Mehmed Ali :-  The French under napoleon had invaded and occupied Egypt in 1798.  The man who would become the basha, the valley, the governor (Mehmed Ali) he arrived in Egypt in 1801 … o As part of the effort to expel the French from Egypt o As part of an Albanian force that was intended to rescue Egypt away from the French and back into Ottoman control. After the defeat of French (the British were cooperating with the Ottomans ) there was a void in the political field in Egypt.  This was a void that various of forces wanted to fill. o The British were on seen. o The Ottomans. o The Mamluks.  They were the former rollers of Egypt.  Who proceeded the French invasion. All of these various forces wanted to fill that political void.  Mehmed Ali … o Spent his first decade in the country manipulating various contingences to secure political advantage.  Most important among them a group of people were called “Cairo Notables”.  They were frustrated with the persistent failure of the Ottomans to give the province of Egypt some motocome of stability.  In or der to do business they needed this stability. By 1811 …  The basha (Mohammed Ali as we know him) had consolidated his control of Egypt in quite spectacular fashion by murdering no fewer than 74 of the most prominent Mamluks at the citadel in Cairo. Note: The base of this lecture is the following 3 and half decades … * A scholar called Afaf Lutfi Al-Sayyid Marsot “Egypt in the reign of Mohammed Ali” ..  Had an extraordinary influence in middle eastern studies.  Had an extraordinary influence in Egypt studies particularly.  Why it is important that Marsot select the Arabic rendering rather than the Turkish ? o In using Mohammed Ali (The Arabic rendering which is the native language of the vast majority of Egyptians) she seeks to counter up an image of a leader who has his eyes on Egypt rather on the other Ottoman empire. o Permit Marsot to create a bound in her readers mind between Mohammed Ali and the Egyptians. o To label the basha Mohammed Ali almost suggest that this man speaks Arabic “He didn’t speak Arabic !”  He was of an Albanian descent.  His language was an Ottoman Turkish.  She acknowledge it but she proceed the claim …  “Mohammed Ali put Egypt in the path of independent statehood”.  And part of this self recognition is to have a separate identity from other Muslims and Ottomans.  A governor of a near province would find Egypt rich enough but the roller of the state needs to develop his resources as much as possible to render the country self sufficient and capable of expansion of its own merits not as part of a larger whole.  Mohammed Ali wasn’t nearly the governor of another Ottoman province.  He aspire to roll a state.  And aspiring to independent from the Ottomans in this way he led the Egyptians to think of themselves as distinct from the Ottomans.  Let’s take this as a given for the moment  If the aim of Mohammed Ali has is indeed that of an independent state, as Marsot suggest, then what absolutely indispensable to accomplish that aim ? o Above all An affective military force (Above all).  For that he needed two things …  Men… He got the men from the Egyptian country side.  At this point we see the introduction of conscription where by prisons throughout the Nile valley were gathered together and forced to service as solders in Mohammed Ali’s Military campaigns.  By 1830, the basha had a standing force of no fewer than 53,000 men (by slandered of the day it was impressive). At his disposal.   Method …  He got the methods largely from European sources.  Military training manuals were translated from European languages into Arabic.  European Experts were brought into the country to help instill in Mohammed Ali’s officer core a sense of discipline (a sense of regimentation).  However (and this was a great concern on the basha’s part) introducing European exports into Egypt in a lasting bases would nearly result in replacing dependence on the Ottomans with dependence on Europeans.  Given that Marsot was arguing that independence was the aim, to accomplish this independence, Mohammed Ali saw to develop indigenes military capacities (indigenes technical capacities). o Indeed the basha preferred to export young Ottomans and Egyptians to Europe rather than import Europeans into Egypt. o Because those young Ottomans, Those young Egyptians, who the basha sent, they could acquire the necessary skills and the necessary knowledge to build up indigenes institutions on Egyptian soil.  Institutions that would send new generations of Egyptians to serve in the military, to serve as engineers. o Then there will be a development on a various educational missions, missions dispatched to Europe, and shortly after the return of these missions we see a local institutions established. o For instance,  A school for medicine.  A school for languages. If the military is in focus here, improving the performance of the military, disciplining the military, regimenting the military, why would you develop a school for medicine?  Solders get hurts so they need doctors to keep them alive.  There is a problem of epidemic disease. o The disease was the most problematic illness is syphilis (a sexually transmitted disease).  There were entire entourages and families, in some cases, would follow the military to campaigns.  Facilitated the spread of syphilis resulted of great loses of men in these military campaigns  This became a priority for military to develop indigenes
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