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Lecture 6

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Department
Health Sciences
Course
HSCI 100
Professor
Nienke Van Houten
Semester
Summer

Description
CHAPTER 11: BLOOD Wrong blood cells will explode in the immune system FUNCTIONS - 1.Transportation: o2, nutrients, wastes, CO2, hormones - 2.Protection: against invasions by pathogens - 3.Regulation: Body temp, water salt balance, body pH COMPOSITION of blood PLASMA (55%)– 92% water, 8% salts and organic molecules - Medium which materials are transported by the blood Plasma proteins 1. Albumins - Most abundant. Osmotic pressure and transport of other molecules 2. Globulins - Transports lipids & fat soluble vitamins, some antibodies 3. Fibrinogens - Formation of blood clots FORMED ELEMENTS Formed elements: from cells produced in RED BONE MARROW (epiphysis of long bones) - Red blood cells – erythrocytes (RBC) - White blood cells – leukocytes (WBC) - Platelets Hematopoiesis: process for blood stem cell differentiating into these different descendants - Production of blood. PLATELETS (thrombocytes) - Fragments of large cells (megakaryocytes) made in red bone marrow - 200 bil made a day, life span 5-10days - BLOOD CLOTTING - Thrombin/fibrinogen important for blood clotting by generation fibrin threads that catch RBC - Step1: injured cells in walls of vessels and platelets release clotting factors - Step 2: clotting factors convert an inactive blood protein to prothrombin activator - Step3: prothrombin activator converts prothrombin  thrombin - Step 4: thrombin converts fibrinogen  fibrin - Step 5: fibrin network traps RBC and platelets –= BLOOD CLOT! RED BLOOD CELLS (erythrocytes) - Produced in red bone marrow - Pick up oxygen in the lungs and ferry it to all cells in body - Lifespan =120 days - Form through negative feedback - Erythropoietin(EPO) – excreted by kidney cells and moves to red marrow when O2 LEVELS LOW o Old cells destroyed by liver/spleen o Structure - Lack nucleus, few organelles - Biconcave shape increases SA - Flexible & able to squeeze through capillaries o Each cell has hemoglobin (oxygen binding pigment) - ~280 mil hemoglobin, each binds 4 O2 - Liver + spleen - graveyards o Remaining heme = yellow pigment, bilirubin, excreted by liver in bile WHITE BLOOD CELLS (leukocytes) - Derived from red bone marrow - Large blood cells, have nucleus - Production regulated by colony-stimulating factor (CSF) - Remove waste toxin, old, abnormal cells - In blood and tissues (lymph nodes/spleen) - Fight infection (immune system) - phagocytosis Categorization: - Granulaocytes – noticeable granules, lobed nuclei o Eosinophil – stained by eosin and turn red  Small % of wbc  Contain bilobed nucleus  Parasitic worm infection and role in allergies o Basophil – stained by basic dyes and turn blue  Small % of wbc  U shape/lobed nucleus  Release HISTAMINE – attracts other wbc, cause blood vessels to dilate o Neutrophil – not stained by dyes  About 50-70% of all wbc  Contain multi lobed nucleus  Upon infection they move out of circulation into tissues to use phagocytosis to engulf pathogens  COMPONENT OF PUS – dead neutrophils along with bacteria and cell debris - Agranulocytes – no granules, nonlobed nuclei o Lymphocyte – (b cells, t cells)  25-35% of all wbc  Large nucleus taking up most of cytoplasm  Develop into B & T cells for immune system o monocyte  relatively uncommon WBC  largest WBC with horseshoe shaped nucleus  in tissues, develop into macrophages (use phagocytosis to engulf pathogens) extravasation: movement of WBC out of circulation - wbc exit a capillary by squeezing btwn cells and vessel walls BLOOD CELL DISORDERS Platelet disorders - Thrombocytopenia - # of platelets too low due to not enough born in the bone marrow/increased breakdown outside marrow - Thromboembolism – blood clot forms (thrombus) and breaks off from tis site of origin (embolus) and plugs another vessel - Hemophilia – genetic disorder. Deficiency of a clotting factor so that when a person damages a blood vessel they are unable to properly clot their blood both int/externally RBC disorders - Anemia – too few RBC/hemoglobin = run down feeling - Sickle-cell anemia – genetic disease, RBC sickle shape = tend to rupture - Hemolytic disease of the new born o Condition with incompatible blood types that leads to rupturing of blood cells in baby before and continuing after birth WBC disorders - Severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) o Inherited disease that stem cells of WBC lack enzyme that allows them to fight infection - Leukemia – group of cancers that affect wbc in which cells grow w/o control - Infectious mononucleosis – KISSING DISEASE o Epstein-bar virus (EBV) infects lymphocytes resulting in fatigue, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes BLOOD TYPING - Antigen – foreign substance that stimulates immune response (polysaccharide/protein) - Antibody – proteins made in response to antigen in body and bind to that antigen and help to eliminate it from the body - Blood types named after portion antigens that are present on surface of their cell o Except type O that entirely lacks A&B proteins - Blood types only have antibodies to antigens they do not have on the surface of their cells o E.g. type A blood  Has A proteins on cell, B antibodies  Will react to type B blood  RB’s agglutinate or stick together ABO blood types - Individuals with AB blood have antibodies against neither - Type O have both anti B and anti A antibodies - BLOOD TEST – mix drop of persons blood with solution of anti A and another with anti B, if clumping occurs the antigen corresponding to the mixture is present - BLOOD TRANSFUSION – when given blood with foreign antigens, blood will clump (AGGLUTINATE) = fatal, damaging - Rh BLOOD GROUPS - Rh factor – often included when expressing blood type (positive/negative) o With RH factor = positive - Rh antibodies only develop in person when they exposed to Rh factor form another’s blood (fetus) - Hemolytic disease of newborn can happen during pregnancy o Mom Rh-, Dad Rh+, fetus Rh+ o Prevention:  Rh- women given injection of antiRH antibodies no later than 72hrs after birth  Antibodies attack fetal red blood cells in mother before mothers immune system can make antibodies BLOOD CLOTTING 1. Injured cells in walls of vessels & platelets release clotting factors 2. Clotting factors convert inactive blood protein to promthrombin activator 3. Promthrombin activator converts prothrombin to thrombin 4. Thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin 5. Fibrin network traps red blood cells and platelets, forming blood clot Problems associated with abnormal blood clotting - Lack of vitamin K – need vitamin K for liver to synthesize promthrombin & 3 clotting factors - Hemophilia – inherited. Affected person bleeds excessively owing to a fault in one of the genes involved in producing clotting factors - Thrombus – blood clot lodged in unbroken blood vessel - Embolus – blood clot drifting through circulatory system - Clots normally dissolved by enzyme (plasmin) Clicker - Specific recognition proteins found on all cell surfaces (including RBC surfaces) are called ANTIGENS o ANTIBODIES – proteins circulating in blood - Individuals with type O blood have no antigens on their blood cells but they do have type A and B in their plasma - A person with which type of blood can technically receive blood from a person with any of the ABO blood types? Type AB blood - If substance A and substance B react by clumping together the specific term to use is ___ agglutination complexes CHAPTER 12: CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM Structures that compose - Heart and blood vessels - Lung kidneys intestine liver – refreshes blood - Lymphatic vessels – collect excess fluid surrounding tissues & return to cardiovascular system FUNCTIONS 1. Generate bP 2. Transport blood & other components 3. Exchange of nutrients (glucose) and wastes (CO2) at capillaries 4. Regulate blood flow as needed BLOOD VESSELS: Heart  arteries  arterioles  capillaries  venules  veins  back to heart ARTERIES & ARTERIOLES: - Carry blood AWAY from heart - 3 layers: thin inner epithelium (simple squamous), thick smooth muscle layer, outer connective tissue - Arterioles = smaller, regulate bp, gatekeepers to capillary networks - Elastic fibers (1) help artery tolerate pressure shock when heart contracts (2)help maintain relatively even pressure within artery CAPILLARIES - Microscopic vessels btwn arterioles & venules - Made of 1 layer of epithelial tissue - Form bed of vessels where exchange with body cells occur - Creates large SA - Capillary bed: network of capillaries servicing a particular area - Precapillary sphincter: ring of smooth muscle – branches off the arteriole & regulates blood flow into it VEINS & VENULES: - Venules = small veins that receive blood from capillaries - Carry blood TOWARDS heart - 3 layers: thin inner epithelium, thin smooth muscle layer, outer connective tissue Structure: - Left ventricle more muscular b/c it must pump blood to entire boy - Arteries are more muscular than veins to withstand higher pressure - Veins thinner wall & larger center for volume to store blood Pulse: alternate expansion/recoil of arteries create a pressure wave - Compress fingers any artery that lies near body’s surface o E.g. wrist, angle of jaw ANATOMY OF THE HEART - Large organ mostly cardiac muscle tissue (myocardium) - Surrounded by sac of pericardium - Consists of 2 sides, right and left separated by septum - 4 chambers: 2 atria, 2 ventricles - 2 set of valves, semilunar valves + atrioventricular valves( AV/CUSPID VALVES) o AV: Right side – tricuspid, left side – bicuspid/mitral o SEMILUNAR: btw its ventricle and connecting artery o Chordae tendineae – heartstrings that prevent AV valves from flapping back into atria Pulmonary circuit - Right side of heart - Receives blood from body and sends it to the lungs - Right atrium  AV(tricuspid) valveright ventricle  pulmonary semilunar valve  pulmonary trunk  pulmonary arteries  lungs  pulmonary veins  left atrium Systemic circuit - Left side of heart - Receives blood from lung & sends blood to entire body to deliver nutrients and rid it of wastes o Small coronary arteries that supply the heart and branch from aorta & return at the superior vena cava - Left atrium  AV (bicuspid/mitral) valve left ventricle –aortic semilunar valve  aorta  body tissues  inferior vena cava or superior vena cava  right atrium BLOOD FROM LOWER PARTS OF BODY TOWARDS THE HEART – HOW? 1. Valves in veins prevent backflow of blood 2. Contraction of skeletal muscle squeezes veins 3. Breathing causes pressure changes that move blood towards the heart Describe the structure of the heart as a double pump - Atria contract simultaneously then the ventricles do VALVES - Keep blood flowing toward heart & prevent back flow - Skeletal muscles help to push blood back to heart HEARTBEAT - Systole = atria contract together followed by ventricles contracting together - Diastole = rest phase chambers relax - Cardiac cycle =
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