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HSCI 100 - Blood/Cardio/respiratory system and More

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Simon Fraser University
Health Sciences
HSCI 100
Nienke Van Houten

Blood:  55% Plasma, o Albumin – majority of plasma transport and osmotic pressure o Globulin – fat and vitamin transport AND Antibiotic o Fibrinogen – For blood Clots  45% Red blood cells & platelets o No nucleus and organelles o 120 day life span o Hemoglobin bound (280 Mill!)  Red Blood cell production: o Bone Marrow produces o Erythropoietin (EPO) excreted from kidneys stimulate red marrow when low O2 o Stop production of EPO o Disfunctions include o Anemia (Less RBCs or Hemoglobin) o Sickle-cell anemia,  Genetic RBC hemoglobin shape dysfunction. (Low 02) o Hemolytic disease of newborns –  Non compatible blood types  White Blood Cells o Red Bone Marrow too – controlled by colony stimulating factor o Has nucleus o Granular  Noticeable granules  Eosinophil – eosin stained/RED  Basophil – Basic dyes /BLUE  Neutrophil – no stain o Agranular – No granules  Lymphocyte – B-cells and T-cells  Monocyte o Eosinophils  Parasitic worm infections and allergic o Basophil  U shaped nucleus  Release histamine for allergic reaction o Neutrophil  Majority of WBC  Multi lobed  PUS o Lymphocytes  Large Nucleus  Develops into B and T cells o Monocytes, Phagocytosis to engulf pathogens  White Blood Cell Deficiencies: o Severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID)  White blood cells lack the enzyme to fight infections o Leukemia  Cancer which causes uncontrollable proliferation o Infectious mononucleosis  MONO!!! – Kissing disease  EBV virus infects lymphocytes.  PLATELETS o fragments of Megakaryocytes(produced in Red bone marrow) o 200bill produced a day o Blood Clotters o Liver Function  Thrombin and Fibrinogen are clotting agents by creating fibrin threads. o Disorders Include: o Thrombocytopenia  Reduced number of platelets; not enough born in marrow or increased breakdown o Thromboembolism  Clot forms (Thrombus) and breaks off from the site (embolus) and plugs another vessel! o Hemophilia  Genetic deficiency of clotting  Blood Typing o Antigen  foreign substance (polysaccharide or protein) stimulating an immune response o Antibody  Protein response to an antigen  VERY Specific o Type "x" has "x" proteins on RBC, and "y" antibodies o Type O rejects all, and Type AB accepts all blood types o Rh +/-blood groups. +  Rh blood type antibodies only form after exposure  Rh fetal blood enters mothers bloodstream and produces antibodies over time (problem for next child)  Prevention: Injection of anti-Rh antibodies Cardiovascular System:  Heart/Blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels  Arteries to Arterioles o 3 layered wall  thin inner epithelium (simple squamous)  thick smooth muscle  outer connective o Carry blood away from heart  Capillaries o Microscopic vessels o Osmotic/Blood pressure capillary bed gas exchange o One layer of epithelial  to distribute and oxygen/gas exchange  Veins and Venules o Carry blood to the heart  thin inner epithelium (simple squamous)  THIN smooth muscle  outer connective o Muscular assisted circulation o One way valves  Capillaries and Lymphatic vessels work together in regulating tissue homeostasis. o lymphatic discharges fluids  Lymphatic System: o Lymph  Like, Interstitial fluid o Lymphatic vessels  one way valves to prevent backflow o Lymphatic tissue and organs o Lymphatic Condition:  Elephantiasis  parasitic infection blocks lymphatic vessels preventing the return of fluid to blood  MAJOR swelling  Heart: o ***Inferior/superior vena cava --> Right atria --> Right Ventricle --> Pulmonary Artery --> Lungs --> Pulmonary Vein --> Left Atrium --> Left Ventricle --> Aorta --> Body*** o Pulmonary system  Re-oxygenation from lungs. o Systemic circuit:  Body o Cardiac Cycle  Systole of Atria, Then Systole of Ventricles o Internal Control:  Sinoatrial (SA) node.  Indicates heart beat; Atrium contraction  Atrioventricular (AV) node  in right atrium, sends singal down the AV bundle and purkinje fibers that cause ventricular contraction  Travel between gap junctions o External Control  Heartbeat controlled by a cardiac center in the brain and hormones like epinephrine (Adrenaline) Respiratory System:  Breathing o Oxygen import o Gas distribution/diffusion in body tissue o Carbon dioxide transport/export o Gas diffusion in lungs  Major Anatomy upper Respiratory system o Nasal cavity  mucus control  filter, temperature and moisture o Pharynx  air and food passageway  nasopharynx   oropharynx   laryngo-pharynx  o Epiglottis  flap of skin filter for air during food intake o Larynx  air way  Voice box  Moves during swallow to push epiglottis to block airway o Sinuses  Pockets of air in the skull o Trachea  Connection between larynx and Bronchi  Cilia lined tube, with mucus production o Bronchi  breaks into two trachea into Bronchioles  into Alveoli microscopic chambers for gas exchange o Diaphragm  Muscle for pressure control in lungs to breathe o Intercostals muscles  muscle between ribs to assist breathing. o Lungs  membrane to hold shape = pleura o Alveoli 2  300 million in lungs to produce 75m surface area  surrounded by capillaries for gas exchange  lined with surfactant to keep them from sticking  Inspiration/Inhalation o breathing in o Active process - muscle contraction (Diaphragm straightens) and air pressure drops sucking more air in o ribcage moves outward  Expiration/Exhalation o Usually Passive process - muscles relax and Diaphragm concaves o ribcage moves in  Volumes of air during breathing o tidal volume - small amount of air between "normal breaths" o vital capacity - max volume in and out during breath o in/expiratory reserve - increased air intake through muscle use o residual volume - equilibrium in lungs to keep inflation  Nervous control for breathing o MEDULLA OBLONGATA!  involuntary control of muscle contraction for inspiration  Chemoreceptors respond to rising C0 (Rising acidity of H ) + 2 and lowered 0 2evels  increases breathing contractions o Cerebral cortex  conscious control of breathing o Carotid and aortic bodies  Chemoreceptors respond to rising C0 a2d lowered 0 lev2ls  Blood acidity + - o CO +2H 0 2[carbonic anhydrase]-> H C0 --2 H 3 HC0 3 o Hyperventilation (More oxygen/Less CO ) 2  less acidity, pH goes up - "alkalosis" o Hypoventilation (More acidity)  pH goes down  This forces breathing due to acid build up o Oxygen and C0 di2fusion due to different areas of partial pressure  Disorders o Pneumonia  alveoli fill with PUS and fluid [reduce gas exchange] o Pulmonary Fibrosis  Fibrous connective tissue build up in lung [reduced elasticity] o Pulmonary Tuberculosis  Tubercl
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