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Hsci 120 - Lecture 4

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Simon Fraser University
Health Sciences
HSCI 120
Carolyn Stewart

HSCI 120 September 29, 2010 Lecture 5 Contraception and Abortion Chapter 7 The Pill  Combination Birth Control Pills or Oral Contraceptives: Birth control pills that contain a (see page 218) combination of estrogen and progestin  Triphasic Pill: Birth control pill where period comes once every 4 months  Works by preventing ovulation – Estrogen, which controls ovulation, is low just before and after ovulation, with the pill, estrogen is made/kept high throughout  Failure Rate: Pregnancy rate of those who use the contraception and get pregnant  Failure Rate for Perfect Users: Those who use the contraceptive as directed perfectly (0.1%)  Failure Rate for Typical Users: Those who sometimes forget to eat the pill (3%) The Pill – Side Effects  Higher chance of blood clotting (thrombi) – Particularly for women over 35 who smoke  High blood pressure  Increases vaginal discharge  Changes vagina lining  Increased weight: Water retention and appetite The Patch  Same hormones as the pill, but is stuck on skin for 7 days – must place new patch once a week for 3 weeks then have a patch-free week of week 4 The Vaginal Ring  Same hormones as the pill, but is inserted in vagina for 21 days then removed for 7 days Emergency Contraception  Destroys potential pregnancies no longer than 120 hours after unprotected intercourse Depo-Provera  Injections every 3 months which inhibits ovulation by thickening the cervical mucus and inhibiting Injection the growth of the endometrium (failure rate of 3% for typical users) Side Effects  Side effect of amenorrhea: No menstrual periods  Bone loss after 2 years of usage IUD  Intrauterine Device: A plastic device in the shape of a T, sometimes containing metal or a hormone and is inserted in the uterus (failure rate of 0.7% for first year, and lowers after that) o Copper T IUD How IUD works o Progesterone (Mirena) IUD  Copper T: Works by changing uterus and fallopian tubes o Sperm are immobilized in the uterus o Eggs move more swiftly in fallopian tube, reducing chance of fertilization Side Effects  Mirena: Works by thinning endometrium  Can also be used as an emergency contraceptive 7 days after sex  Expulsion rate is 1-7% in first year  Copper T: Increased menstrual cramps, irregular bleeding and increased menstrual flow  Mirena: Reduces menstruation flow and 20% of users stop bleeding Diaphragm  Diaphragm: Cap-shaped rubber device that fits inside the vagina, over the cervix, must apply contraceptive jelly to it  Can insert 6 hours before intercourse, and must stay in for 6 hours after intercourse  Inside more than 24 hours will cause toxic shock  Typical User Failure rate of 20%  Vagina might expand during intercourse – causes diaphragm to slip  FemCap: A rubber cap which has a small one way valve to suck on to the cervix  Lea’s Shield: A rubber sailor’s cap which must be fitted to the cervix by physician Male Condom  Male Condoms: A contraceptive fitted over the penis  Catches sperm and prevents it from entering vagina  Perfect user failure rate of 2% and Typical user failure rate of 18%  Major advantage of protection from STDs Female Condom  A balloon with two rings, one on each end, is inserted into the vagina  Perfect user failure rate of 5% and Typical user failure rate of 21% Spermicide  Spermicide: Any substances which kill sperm  Failure r
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