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hsci 214- mental health notes (class 1).docx

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Simon Fraser University
Health Sciences
HSCI 214
Neil Braganza

Mental Health – definition Mental Health can be defined as a state of emotional and psychological well-being in which an individual is able to use his or her cognitive and emotional capabilities, function in society, and meet the ordinary demands of everyday life Response to “normal” events and challenges, e.g.: - pressures at work or school, - break-up loss of relationships Including more difficult challenges: -Death of family member or friend Response to happy and neutral events, e.g.: - Ability to experience pleasure, humour - How effectively we relax - Quality of choices about relationships - Choices and their impact on ourselves and others Mental Status Examination A structured assessment of the patient's behavioral and cognitive functioning. It includes descriptions of the patient's appearance and general behavior, level of consciousness and attentiveness, motor and speech activity, mood and affect, thought and perception, attitude and insight, the reaction evoked in the examiner, and, finally, higher cognitive abilities Calculation Test: Start at the number 100, then (as a mental exercise without paper or pencil) subtract seven, then subtract seven from the answer, then subtract seven once again, and continue doing so repeatedly The Rorcharch Ink-Blot Test- common responses include: “ a bat” and “a badge”. - strange responses can be a way to tell if someone’s mental health is strange. Understanding mental health and mental illness Physical health- cardiac, respiratory, gastrointestinal, immune, etc. Mental health- brain?  Mind=Brain? Approaches to improving mental health or treating mental illness • Vacations • Exercise • Relaxation • Listening to music • Comedy and laughter • Social activities • Psychotherapy • Medications (ability to alter their mental state) • Licit or illicit drugs • Electroconvulsive therapy • Transcranial magnetic stimulation Brain = Mind?  Mind is a Contruct Construct- a concept for which there is not a single observable referent and which cannot be directly observed, e.g., mind, intellidence, love, depression. Epidemiology, defined as the study of the distribution of health and illness of populations -Epidemiological studies provide the foundation for public and population heath and provide essential information about factors leading to health or disease, including causation and risk factors, and leads to the development of clinical treatments and public health interventions Strengths can be defined as characteristics that help a person cope with difficulties, making life more fulfilling for oneself and others --The shift in focus in the mental health field to a focus on strengths is consistent with a public and population health paradigm, in which efforts work toward the development of resilience, building longstanding capacity for protection against key risk factors Mental illness >250 diagnoses currently described 1 in 5 (20%) one-year prevalence 1 in 2 (50%) lifetime prevalence ----e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, attention deficit disorder, antisocial personality disorder, anorexia nervosa In the prehistory and middle ages, people believed in mystics, were in touch with spirits, possessed by demons, believed to have special powers or abilities… 17th and 18th Centuries --Large hospitals were established in European cities, e.g. Hotel Dieu in Paris 1656, the Zuchthaus in Hamburg 1620 --those installations, each one containing several thousand inmates, combined the characteristics of a penal institution, an insane asylum, a sheltered workshop, and a hospital -- “stigma” “discrimination”  Mental patients were objects of derision and ridicule. In Bethlehem’s wards in the 18th century, the custom of exhibiting lunatics for a penny every Sunday was popular th 19 Century -- “Phrenology” was founded by Franz Josef Gall, based on physiognomic concepts that could be determined by the shape of the cranium. Popularity in Europe and the United States did not decline until the latter half of the century -- “Mesmerism” was initiated by Franz Anton Mesmer who hypothesized that humans are endowed with a special magnetic fluid that, when liberated, could hav
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