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Health Sciences
HSCI 216
Pablo Nepomnaschy

HSCI216: Lecture X Growth & Development  General argument  specific ideas  evidence  conclusion (use this structure) o Every paragraph and sentence is associated with each other o Take the first and last sentence of paragraph, and that you can understand the paper  The first sentence tells you what you are going to read about  The last sentence wraps it up and relates to the first question  The middle is the evidence o Make sure sentences relate to each other!! Flow logically, make arguments fall into the next and the next, find articles that have contrast (considering alternative ideas and explanations), having black, white and grey, purpose a connection between the papers read, will include foresight (how they connect), analyze each groups & contrast arguments (similar/different), then make the similarities between what they are, and make recommendations for what they can investigate in the future. o Paraphrase when reporting!! …no quotations not even with evidence, don’t change the voice of the paper. o Thesis statement  more than a fact, a why  Growth & Development: what factors affect G&D, looking through different life history stages, and how patterns change in response to environmental changes  Somatic Growth o Used because its easy to measure, reflects health status of individual, good indicator of adaptation, body size is a trait  Utero is has a lot of critical events that will shape our life (most important in terms of G&D)  Overview, history & Basic concepts o Georges L. LeClerc  Write encyclopedia on all known about natural history  The height distance or height-for age curve  First growth chart (oldest one we know of) measured from his son every 6 months until age 18  Normal vs. tall. Vs. short  what is the frame of reference  Assessing G&D o Whats normal  We judge our own parameters o How people try to get a frame of reference: growth reference charts o Each population has its own average range for height and weight  Ie: turkana children heights are below Canadas 50 percentile  Pattern of growth may differ (when young they are short, however at the end of growth period they are as tall as we are), different growth spurts at different times  Increased mortality of the smallest individuals may contribute to the appearance of catch up growth o Height is just one of the several patterns in growth  Brain growth, grows very fast after birth  Tissues grow at different paces o Growth is not equal to maturity  Maturity/development: increase in functional ability o Biological & behavior/social maturity  Reproductive (somatic) maturity is sometimes reached before behavioral (brain) maturity  Determinants of growth and development o Genes o Environment o Epigenetic changes: connection between environment and genes, the environment will affect genes through epigenetic changes  Example of G&D  environment: baby with colic’s will affect environment of the parents, causing stress, possible divorce, therefore the amount of resources for this baby will become lower, and the interaction between the mother and baby will be poor, the baby will then become less confident in its environment  they keep feeding off each other and causes a loop (mom doesn’t provide proper nutrients for the baby) o Phenotype = genotype + (epigenotype) + environment  Epigenotype switches off and on as mediator  Nature vs. nurture: some believe we are programmed through genes, some believe we are a clean slate and that environment, social, and other factors shape us  Ex: political Argentina man believed that if we raised people from babies with socialism everyone will be happier because they all have the same view and environment, however he ignored the genetic factor  Ex: why are you not smart? Because of genes? Or because of environment?  Modes of environmental effects on growth o whether environment optimizes growth or not o unconstrained: environment is supportive, growth achieves genetic potential  ie: I ate everything right to grow the tallest I want to be o patterned or channeled: growth is shaped by environmental pressure to achieve a better adaptation (dev
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