Class 5 Lecture Notes (to compliment the lecture slides) HSCI 307
N Paradigm-Underlying theory/framework that is the foundation for how you create
knowledge; used to talk about different approaches that address research problems.
-Very different approaches exist for how we go about our methods: qualitative vs.
-Distinction that influences the research questions and the way the research is collected
lies within the underlying paradigm.
N Positivism-applies to a paradigmatic, deductive approach; is MEASUREABLE; view data
as neutral, objective, unbiased.
N Interpretivism-used in the qualitative research methods; grounding a new theory in the
issue/problem you are trying to study; postmodernism, poststructuralism, etc. are some
of the two more recent forms of interpretivism; looks at the assumptions we bring to
the work (such as our own values as researchers).
N Qualitative and quantitative is an approach in which we go about a paradigm; it[s like a
hierarchy, for e.g.
N Measurement: an assessment of a concept; we can measure it with a number; has a
measurement tool to assess what we are measuring.
-We need to understand measurement in order to understand the type of data we need to
collect. How we measure, collect, & assess is different depending on the approach and
paradigm we use. There is no one method that is better than the other.
N Conceptualization: How you analyse the data and develop meaning from it; why does it
mean that? E.g. you want to have a particular experience from the research
N Operationalization: developing specific research questions/procedures into observations,
e.g. how an individual answers questions and what they draw from to do so.
Operational definition: example of crime;calculating the amount of time a person has spent in
prison can allow you to determine the severity of the crime they have committed. Point: there
are a number of different ways we can think about criminality; depends on the kind of data you
have to determine your analysis.
-Operational is like a way of quantifying the data (interpreting the data in a numerical,
measureable way). Need to think about what the potential biases in the data are (can get the
Zofficial records[ for criminal behaviour but what if the records are wrong? They might not be
updated or completed according to another individual[s bias, etc.
www.notesolution.com Class 5 Lecture Notes (to compliment the lecture slides) HSCI 307
-Determine how you want to assess what constitutes criminal behaviour, then how you go
about obtaining that information.
-When we create a measure, we need to be sure we can replicate it to be used somewhere else
(makes it measureable).
-Ethnic origin can be very different than ethnic identity. Eg. May come from germany, or of
polish origin (ancestors) but may identify as a Canadian or North American.
-We need to think about what ethnicity means in a group; many diversities within different
groups, e.g. Asian-chinese, Korean, Japanese;Caucasian-german, british, French;
-An individual may identify as a mix of 4 different ethnicities; researchers need to collapse these
different identities and derive meaning from them.
Levels of measurement: having an average of ages or blood pressure has meaning, but an
average of different identities would not have the same meaning (because it[s so varied and can
have different identities).
N Nominal: No order to it, e.g. gender, ethnicity, occupation, blood type, etc.
N Ordinal: is ordered, e.g. amount of cigarettes smoked/day, weight, etc. It can be a
discrete category but it[Z}ŒŒ:
-Could make it more precise by narrowing down. Eg. You can ask about SES and narrow down
by asking about income, education level, etc. These can all be ordered so it is ordinal.
N Ratio levels of measurement: e.g. weight. 0 means no weight, where someone who is 20