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Lecture 1

HSCI 130 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Edwin Chadwick, Louis Pasteur, Clinical Trial


Department
Health Sciences
Course Code
HSCI 130
Professor
Robert Hogg
Lecture
1

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HSCI 130 - PUBLIC HEALTH NOTES
Lecture #1
— Public Health = to promote health and quality of life by preventing and controlling disease, injury and disability (CDC Mission Statement)
THE APPROACH TO PUBLIC HEALTH ACCORDING TO THE CDC:
Surveillance Risk Factor Identification Intervention Evaluation Implementation
What is the Problem ? ——————> What is the Cause? —————————> What Works? ———————> How do you do it?
PROBLEM ————————————————————————————————————————> RESPONSE
SOLVING HEALTH PROBLEMS IN 4 STEPS:
— 1) Data Collection = surveillance, determine time, place, and person
2) Assessment = interference
3) Hypothesis Testing = determine how and why
4) Action = intervention
5 CORE SCIENCES OF PUBLIC HEALTH
— 1) Prevention Effectiveness — 2) Surveillance — 3) Epidemiology — 4) Laboratory — 5) Informatics
SANITATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
500 BCE here's and Romans practice community sanitation measures
1840’s : The public health act of 1848 was established in the United Kingdom
1970’s: The Environmental Protection Agency was founded
PANDEMICS:
— Influenza: 500 million infected worldwide Polio: vaccine introduced in 1955; eradication initiative launched in 1988
HIV: 34 million living with HIV worldwide; 20% decline in new infections since 2001
PREPAREDNESS FOR DISASTER RESPONSE
— Biologic warfare: plague used as a weapon of war during the Siege of Kaffa
— September 2001: Public health surveillance conducted after 9/11 attacks
— Hurricane Katrina: emergency services, public health surveillance and disease treatment provided
PREVENTION THROUGH POLICY
— Book of Leviticus: the worlds first written health code
— Tobacco Laws: laws banning smoking in public spaces
— Obesity: food labeling and promotion of physical activity
ERAS OF PUBLIC HEALTH 1
— Health Protection (Antiquity - 1830’s): focus on authority-based control of individual and community behaviours. Action framework: religious
and cultural practices and prohibited behaviours. Notable events: quarantine epidemics, sexual prohibitions to reduce disease transmission, dietary
restrictions to reduce food-borne illness
— Hygiene Movement (1840’s-1970’s): focus on sanitary conditions as basis for improved health. Action Framework: Environmental action on a
community Wide basis distant from health care. Notable events: snow on cholera, collection of vital statistics as empirical foundation for public
health and epidemiology, Semmelweis and Puerperal fever.
ANCIENT GREEKS = (500-323 BC) focused on personal hygiene e.g. physical fitness such as the olympics. This was a NATURALISTIC concept
= disease caused by imbalance between man and his environment.
— HIPPOCRATES= was the father of western medicine. He proposed casual relationships (disease and climate, water, lifestyle and nutrition
caused disease). He coined the term EPIDEMIC (epis meaning “on”or “akin to” and demos meaning “people”)
ERAS OF PUBLIC HEALTH 2
— Contagion control (1880-1940’s): focus on germ theory: demonstration of infectious origins of disease. Action framework: communicate disease
control through environmental control, vaccination, sanatoriums, and outbreak investigation in general population. Notable event: Linkage of
epidemiology, bacteriology, and immunology to form TB sanatoriums; outbreak investigation e.g. Goldberger and pellagra
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