HSCI 216 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Bone Density, Cardiovascular Disease, Delayed Milestone

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HSCI 216
Day 9
July 13, 17
Development Origins of Health and Disease - DoHaD
LAST WEEK
- Prenatal growth severely affected by maternal smoking: ~200 gram difference in birth
weight
- Dose-response: the more you smoke, the smaller your baby will be
- Quitting before the 4th month of pregnancy reduces risk of low birth weight to non-
smokers levels
o CO and cyanide compete for the binding site on hemoglobin
o Then you get fetal hypoxia (low oxygen levels) and goes thru IUGR, low birth
rate and pre-mature birth
Are there genetic determinants of birth weight?
- In terms of genetic influences, the size of babies tends to be associated more with
maternal size than paternal size
- Why?
o Cephalopelvic disproportion = baby’s head or body (shoulders) is to large to fit
through mother’s pelvis
o Safest method of delivery is C section
o Caused by
hereditary factors
diabetes
post-maturity (still pregnant after due date)
Multiparity (not 1st pregnancy)
Abnormal fetal positions
Small/abnormally shaped maternal pelvis = 1 in every 250 pregnancies
Development Origins of Health and Disease DoHaD
Learning Objectives
- To describe the stages of post-natal growth
- To describe how environment affects post-natal growth and when development is most
vulnerable post-natally
- To describe the thrifty phenotype hypothesis and how individuals van be mismatched to
their environment after birth
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Document Summary

Development origins of health and disease - dohad. Prenatal growth severely affected by maternal smoking: ~200 gram difference in birth weight. Dose-response: the more you smoke, the smaller your baby will be. In terms of genetic influences, the size of babies tends to be associated more with maternal size than paternal size. Development origins of health and disease dohad. To describe the stages of post-natal growth. To describe how environment affects post-natal growth and when development is most vulnerable post-natally. To describe the thrifty phenotype hypothesis and how individuals van be mismatched to their environment after birth. To discuss how nutrition, environment and psychosocial stress can impact development post-natally. Lady who killed her 5 children (found not guilty) andrea yates. Post-partum depression (~15% of women) can lead to neglect, post-partum psychosis (1 per 1,000) may lead to infanticide. Ppd and ppp have been proposed to be evolved mechanisms for maternal investment avoidance.

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