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Lecture

HSCI 216 Lecture Notes - Postpartum Depression, Cortisol, Homo Sapiens


Department
Health Sciences
Course Code
HSCI 216
Professor
Pablo Nepomnaschy

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HSCI216: Lecture XII
Environment, Development & Health
What constitutes the baby’s first environment? the womb
o Will have the most strongest effect
o Relationship with mothers and unborn offspring is complex
Relationship marked by constraints in the quality of the environment the mother
faces which necessarily translate into the quality of the fetus’s environment
External constraints internal effects
o Prenatal constraints can affect postnatal phenotypes
Phenotype what we perceive of the person (outgoing etc. we cant see their
hormones)
Survival will depend on the nature and intensity of the constrain, in certain cases
(IUGR) survival is possible but it comes at a cost..
o Debate on the resulting phenotypes represent
Unavoidable results of prenatal constraints (ie: not enough food therefore, energy for
you to grow in impoverished community)
Cost of prenatal adaptions to those prenatal constraints (ie: changes in the fetus for it
trying to survive in the womb, they are small because their metabolism changed for
them to be able to fight challenge in the womb)
Adaptive phenotypic changes that will aid the individual in dealing with (expected)
postnatal constraints (fetus perceives there is little food in the outside world,
therefore born small (phenotype) to be able to survive with little food because
requires less energy intake)
*understand these 3 different hypothesis!!
o Developmental adaptation results of developmental plasticity
Phenotypic changes are considered to take place in order to survive wither prenatal
challenges or expected post-natal constraints
Unavoidable costs don’t have associated benefits to them (other than allowing for
immediate survival)
Plasticity is hypothesized to be an evolved trait
External constraint can lead to internal conflicts
o The conflicts of interests with the players involved
o Players = mom, dad and fetus
o Genes of mom and dad aren’t the same thing
Intra-genomic conflict hypothesis
o Meiotic drive There are some alleles over represented in the egg
Therefore your expression of gene will either reflect mothers or fathers more
o phenotype = genotype + environment
genes can become part of other genes environment
o maternal-offspring conflict
maternal genes if you are a maternal allele what would you want the fetus to do?
Maximize inclusive fitness of the mother (fitness of anyone related to mom)
Investment depends on quality of the offspring
Sensitive to tradeoffs between offspring quantity to quality
Sensitive to tradeoffs between current and future offspring
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