HSCI 305 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Keynesian Economics, Working Poor, Typhoid Fever

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HSCI 305 Lecture 2  History
- Largely political, turbulence of federal consolidation and political struggle at both federal and provincial
levels
- Background of intense economic growth, two major imperialist wars, a devastating market crash, and
state economic reorientation towards Keynesianism
- Development of Canadian state and state infrastructure: public health and sanitation, hospitals, housing,
transportation
- Growing and changing conceptions of health and disease, and how and where to focus health and health
care knowledge and science
- How business and industry springs up around health and health care, which exacerbates tension in
debates
- Public vs. private; human collective responsibility and rights vs. individual privileges and private assets
Major Players: political parties, medical professionals, insurance companies, workers/farmers and rural poor
Workers and Farmers
- Miners in Nova Scotia represented by Provincial Workers’ Association won first formal agreement from
employer for health coverage in Glace Bay in 1883
oOther mining and logging communities in Ontario and BC followed suit
oFarmers in prairie known for insurance cooperatives
oSought cooperation, mutual aid, pooling of risks, help when ill or injured
Politics
- Parties navigated interests of major backers and investors and majority working poor populatin
- Prevailing norms Keynesian from post-Depression to mid-1980s
- Never had a federally-elected social democratic government
oElection of it at provincial level major influence on federalism
- Fear of Socialism
Professionalism
- As profits grow, physicians interest in national state-led insurance plan diminish
- See definite economic interests in partnership with business
- Self-regulation set norms of individualism and autonomy over collectivity
Big Business
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- Insurance industry levelled huge profits from high premium charges and copayments
- Chamber of Commerce and Board of Trade
- Canadian Life Insurance Officers Association (CLIOA)
Stages of the Story
1. Colonization and state development (1700s to 1900s)
2. Struggle for access: WWI-mid to late 1960s
3. Legislative disputes: mid 1960s to today
1 Colonization and Healing traditions
- Healing traditions ranging back thousands of years
- Wide linguistic/regional variation; commonalities include holistic framework or health very different
than the biomedical tradition
- Both preventative and curative
- Healing traditions included healers and midwives
- Intimate knowledge of use of botanicals
- Shared knowledge and practice with settler populations
Settler Expansion
- Settler colonial traditions; European immigrants
- Asian, African, and central and South American migrant workersimmigrants
- Own preventative health and healing belief systems and practices
- Herbals & botanicals, midwifery, lay participation in health knowledge and science
Infections, Population Growth & Public Sanitation
- Infections: tuberculosis, typhoid, cholera, smallpox
- Rapidly changing social structure and context
- Intro of new infections with migration and closer habitation
- Lacking public health measures such as city sanitation, water filtration, etc
- Poor living conditions for indigenous and impoverished migrant families
Federation and Government
- British North America Act and Canadian Federation 1867
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Document Summary

Largely political, turbulence of federal consolidation and political struggle at both federal and provincial levels. Background of intense economic growth, two major imperialist wars, a devastating market crash, and state economic reorientation towards keynesianism. Development of canadian state and state infrastructure: public health and sanitation, hospitals, housing, transportation. Growing and changing conceptions of health and disease, and how and where to focus health and health care knowledge and science. How business and industry springs up around health and health care, which exacerbates tension in debates. Public vs. private; human collective responsibility and rights vs. individual privileges and private assets. Major players: political parties, medical professionals, insurance companies, workers/farmers and rural poor. Parties navigated interests of major backers and investors and majority working poor populatin. Never had a federally-elected social democratic government: election of it at provincial level major influence on federalism. As profits grow, physicians interest in national state-led insurance plan diminish. See definite economic interests in partnership with business.

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