Measuring benefits for economic evaluation and critical appraisal of the qualy (on exam. By looking at costs we can"t find out if something is cost effective, only how expensive it is. Economic research finds out if its cost effective. Clinical and economic research are not conflicting questions even if they have different answers. Intermediate outcomes are something that"s related to the final outcome but aren"t necessarily the same. Evaluating cost per case (/case detected) the case=cancer. Concern for using intermediate and surrogate outcomes to detect cases. That they want to get help (patient perspective) Therefore, we identified the screening program is cost effective but what if we can"t do anything to treat it. Therefore, the evaluating process is not efficient since we don"t know if we can treat it. Monetary outcomes: difficult to hypothesize willingness to pay to alleviate pain. Life years gained not accurate: survival is generic outcome.