HSCI 307 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Ethnography, Convenience Sampling, Thick Description

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Published on 17 Jan 2017
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Chapter 2 Research Paradigms 范例
Introduction
Intersectionality: the ways in which race, gender, and class combine to influence population patterns of
morbidity and mortality
Health as…
Personal trouble: researchers seeks to understand the lived experience of disease how it affects
individuals and their families
Enable us to understand important dimensions of health and illness, and can offer important
feedback in the evaluation of public health policy
Public issue: …udestad the ats of history, culture, economics, and politics that shape our
capacities to lead healthy lives
Local level: involve examining local bylaws (that enable/ restrict the location of fast food
restaurants)
National level: involve analyzing laws to restrict tobacco advertising
International level: we can see health as a public issue in that global macroeconomics, climate
change, political conflict (war)
Dual nature of disease: biologically and socially, that requires an understanding at the individual level of
the body/mind, and at the public health level as it relates to health policy and SDoH
What is a Research Paradigm?
A paradigm refers to the assumptive base underlying a particular investigation or enquiry that has been
undertaken
Health-related: A research paradigm reflets oe’s eliefs aout hat and how knowledge is
produced
often used to illustrate differences in methodological approaches
different study objectives and designs
3 dimensions: epistemology认识论, ontology实体论 存在论, methodology方法论
Epistemology
A branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and definition of knowledge and truth
Defines the types of data that would be considered valid and useful
i.e. data collected from large nationally-representative random samples using validated survey
questions
Positivism实证主义, interpretivism释主义, critical realism批判现实主义
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Ontology
The study of the nature of reality
Oiets us to a fudaetal uestio faig eseahes: do e stud ojetie etities 客观存在
things that have a fixed reality that is independent of our perspectives; or social constructions, fluid
things that change depending on our point of view? Nature of reality
Objectivism: phenomena that exist as external objects; their characteristics are independent of our
perspective (height & weight)
Constructionism: socially constructed phenomena (masculinity & femininity)
Methodology
Desies oe’s appoah to data olletio ad aalsis
Quantitative vs. qualitative
Epistemological Foundations 认识
Positivism 实证主义
Argues that valid knowledge and truth is generated through a scientific process based on
observation/ measurement and generalization
forms the paradigmatic basis for much health research today
historically, little difference between the natural sciences and the social sciences
…ased o the assuptios that:
Reality is constant and that it can be measured
Data can be collected and interpreted objectively
…ie sietifiall podued data as neutral and unbiased
Emphasizes on:
Rigorous严格的 measurement of variables
Analysis of cause and effect relationships
Testing of hypotheses
Generation of principles and laws
Main research methods:
Epidemiological study designs:
RCT, cohort studies, cross sectional studies
Survey research
Secondary document analysis
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Document Summary

Intersectionality: the ways in which race, gender, and class combine to influence population patterns of morbidity and mortality. Personal trouble: researchers seeks to understand the lived experience of disease how it affects individuals and their families. Enable us to understand important dimensions of health and illness, and can offer important feedback in the evaluation of public health policy. Public issue: u(cid:374)de(cid:396)sta(cid:374)d the a(cid:272)ts of history, culture, economics, and politics that shape our capacities to lead healthy lives. Local level: involve examining local bylaws (that enable/ restrict the location of fast food restaurants) National level: involve analyzing laws to restrict tobacco advertising. International level: we can see health as a public issue in that global macroeconomics, climate change, political conflict (war) Dual nature of disease: biologically and socially, that requires an understanding at the individual level of the body/mind, and at the public health level as it relates to health policy and sdoh.

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