HSCI 307 Lecture 3: week 3 Chapter 4&5 Ethics&Systematic Review

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Published on 8 Mar 2017
School
Simon Fraser University
Department
Health Sciences
Course
HSCI 307
Professor
Lecture 3
Chapter 4 Systematic Review
Systematic Reviews
A ssteati eie attepts to ollate all epiial eidee that fits pe-specified eligibility criteria in
order to answer a specific research question. It uses explicit, systematic methods that are selected with
a view to minimizing bias, thus providing more reliable finding from which conclusions can be drawn and
deisios ade
Purpose of Research
End goal is to apply the knowledge learned from the sample to the whole population (generalize)
Rerun the study 100 times 100 unique sample different results
The difference could vary dramatically from showing a large, statistically significant positive effect,
to no effect, to a large, statistically significant negative effect.
The results of single studies help health care practitioners stay aware of new emerging knowledge in
particular topic areas not reflective of a whole population
Systematic reviews use explicit methods aimed at minimizing bias in order to produce more reliable
findings that can be used to inform decision making
Steps in Conducting a Systematic Review
To distinguish a systematic review from other types of reviews:
The process of conducting the review is clearly articulated, that this process is decided a priori
(before the review is started), and that the process does not change throughout the course of
conducting the review
1. Defining the research question
2. Identifying inclusion and exclusion criteria
3. Searching for studies
4. Selecting studies
5. Assessing methodological quality of the
included studies
6. Extracting relevant data from each included
study analyzing the data
7. Interpreting the results
8. Drawing conclusions
1. Defining the Research Question
A focused and clearly articulated research question addresses the following components as specifically
as possible
Population of interest (children attending elementary school, aged 5-12)
Intervention you want to know the effectiveness of (school-based anti-bullying intervention:
reducing bullying behaviour)
What the intervention is being Compared to (what schools currently have in place to reduce bullying
behaviour)
The Outcomes you want to learn about (the number of reported bullying episodes during a given
school year) PICO
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Lecture 3
Among children aged 5-12 year, what is the effectiveness of school-based anti-bullying
interventions in comparison to standard practice, on the number of reported bullying episodes
during the school year?
Adatageous eause…
It helps the review authors focus on exactly what their question is
It helps readers of the review identify very quickly if the review is relevant for their practice question
2. Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria
Inclusion criteria identify what a study needs to address in order to be included in the review (i.e. a
particular P, I, O)
Can also delineate the type of research designs that will be included as well as a time frame of when
the study was published (RCT in the past 10 years)
Exclusion criteria identify situations and circumstances in which a study will not be included (i.e. certain
P, I, O)
… ae essetial to odutig a igoous ssteati eie eause thereduce bias in the selection of
studies
3. Searching For Studies
Only randomized controlled trials (RCT) will be included in the review
It is important that the search strategy to find studies does not systematically exclude certain types of
studies (e.g. unpublished studies grey literatures), as this may bias the results in a particular direction
Medline: biomedical literature
Keyword: MeSH Medical Subject Headings
Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL): nursing and allied health
PsycInfo: behavioural sciences and mental health
Eric, Cochrane Central database of trials
To identify relevant studies:
checking the reference lists of included studies
contacting experts in the content area for additional studies
checking the conference proceedings
looking at the table of contents from relevant journals
searching the websites of organizations that produce evidence on the topic of interest
…patiulal useful fo idetifig upulished studies
Unpublished studies are more likely to report results suggesting an intervention has no effect than a
statistically significant effect
If unpublished studies are not included in the review, there is possibility that the review will be
biased toward finding a positive effect when in fact this may not be the case
Also, not limit the search strategy to English language only studies
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Document Summary

Systematic reviews (cid:862)a s(cid:455)ste(cid:373)ati(cid:272) (cid:396)e(cid:448)ie(cid:449) atte(cid:373)pts to (cid:272)ollate all e(cid:373)pi(cid:396)i(cid:272)al e(cid:448)ide(cid:374)(cid:272)e that fits p(cid:396)e-specified eligibility criteria in order to answer a specific research question. It uses explicit, systematic methods that are selected with a view to minimizing bias, thus providing more reliable finding from which conclusions can be drawn and de(cid:272)isio(cid:374)s (cid:373)ade(cid:863) End goal is to apply the knowledge learned from the sample to the whole population (generalize) Rerun the study 100 times 100 unique sample different results: the difference could vary dramatically from showing a large, statistically significant positive effect, to no effect, to a large, statistically significant negative effect. The results of single studies help health care practitioners stay aware of new emerging knowledge in particular topic areas not reflective of a whole population. Systematic reviews use explicit methods aimed at minimizing bias in order to produce more reliable findings that can be used to inform decision making.

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