The Ethics of Listening
Chapter 7 Listening Skills
• How responsive a listener are you?
• Are you prepared to listen?
• How well do you use your listening time?
• How much of a role do you play in ensuring the integrity of a message?
• How is listening a collaborative act?
Types of Listening
• Appreciative Listening
• Comprehensive Listening
• Critical Listening
• Empathetic Listening
The critical thinker
1. know what he or she does not know
2. is open-minded and takes time to reflect on ideas
3. pays attention to those who agree and disagree with him or her
4. looks for good reasons to reject or accept expert opinion
5. is concerned with unstated assumptions and what is not said, in addition to what is said
6. insists on getting the best evidence
7. reflection on how well conclusions fit premises and vice versa
The uncritical thinker
1. thinks he or she knows everything
2. is close minded and impulsive; jumps to unwarranted conclusions
3. pays attention only to those who agree with him or her
4. disregards evidence as to who is speaking with legitimate authority
5. is concerned only with what is stated, not with what is implied
6. ignores sources of evidence
7. disregards connection or lack of connection between evidence and conclusion
“Entering the Conversation”:
Writing and communicating is an act of conversation
We do this by referring to other views and sources (including our own views!)
We do this by summarizing, paraphrasing, and quoting (and referencing the source) and
connecting these ideas to our own
Summarizing, Paraphrasing, and Note Taking
Always put quotation marks around direct quotes (and give reference/source)
Use your notes for critical thinking and reflection
Use your notes to write!
Summarizing-this involves extracting the main ideas of a passage and converting them into your
own words and sentence patterns.
Paraphrasing-the act of rewording and use different sentence patterns to reproduce an idea or
1. When you can’t paraphrase
2. To demonstrate accuracy
3. Capture ‘flavour’ of the original
4. Avoid awkward paraphrase
5. Enhance your credibility as a writer
1. Read the entire original carefully several times so that you are sure you understand it
completely. If you can mark the original, underline the topic sentences and key points for each
2. Rewrite, retaining the order of the original. Changes in order may distort meaning.
3. Reread the original. Check to see that you have not changed the original or knowingly copied
material that should be paraphrased.
4. If you are unable to paraphrase difficult phrases, copy and enclose in quotation marks.
5. For a summary, reduce material by 50% or more. Paraphrase topic sentences, quoting key
terms as needed. Restate major points. Combine and condense related ideas. Omit examples
and minor details.
6. Cite sources and pages
7. Checkpoint: Is the summary or paraphrase clear? Has all important information been
included? Are all spellings correct?
• You must clearly and properly cite your quote, summary, or paraphrase
• You should use a standard referencing format.