"A stylized figurative drawing that is used to convey information of an analogical or figurative nature directly
to indicate an object or express as idea."
A step up from icon, intended to convey more information than just an icon.
Computer interfaces have always been text heavy
For localization, want to move from high text level interfaces, use more pictograms. Easier, cheaper to
*Art board should have been at 72 DPI
Symbols and signs
Law of Pragnanz: Conciseness vs Detail (Gestalt)
Otl Aicher: Olympic Games
Consistency, Figure-Ground Balanace
EXP - new gamer bar here?
Iconic, symbolic, abstract
First case example: The laptop for every child. Motivation: accessibility to people who have never seen a
laptop, have never seen an computer inferface
Grok - understand, parse
Why communicate with images?
Identified quickly and accurately, can be processed at a distance.
Reduces cognitive load - reading takes time, is linear -images are understood in an instant, can be
processed in parallel
Conserve display space - can smaller and still visible
Work across cultures in many cases
Picture superiority effect - images are faster to read/recognize than text
< 30, text = image
> 30s, image easier to recall
Effect stronger with concrete, common things, not abstract
Want user to retain/have memory of it
Understand it, grok the meaning
Create a context - brings together everything!
Creating contrast with context allows us to attract more attention, novelty as well (also good for retention).
Dual-coding assists long term memory - picture and text, verbal and visual instruction Concrete > abstract
Assist in building schemas - network of interrelated propositions (review COGS notes?)
Gain recognition and memory by organizing things into groups, categorizing. How do they work within other