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Lecture 3

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Interactive Arts & Tech
IAT 267
Helmine Serban

Series and Parallel Circuits -there is only one path for electrons to flow In any given circuit, the total voltage around the path of the circuit is zero Therefore, V = IR1 + IR2 + IR3 Or IR (e) = IR1 + IR2 + IR3 -> R (e) = R1 + R2 + R3 (smaller current value) -the total resistance in any series circuit is equal to the sum of the individual resistances as the more resistors in the series that elections must flow through, the more difficult it would be for those electrons to flow through -all components are connected between the same set of electrically common points -points 1, 2, 3, 4 are all electrically common; so are 8, 7, 6, 5 -all resistors as well as the battery are connected between these two sets of points The amount of current going into any point in a circuit is the same as the amount coming out of that point Therefore, IR1 = V/R1 IR2 = V/R2 IR3 = V/R3 The three currents add up to the total current flowing out from point 2 Therefore, I = IR1 + IR2 + 1R3 Or V/R (e) = V/R1 + V/R2 + V/R3 -> 1/R (e) = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 -> R (e) = R1 x R2 x R3 / (R1R2 + R1R3 + R3R2) Or if the resistances are equal, R (e) = R/3 -total resistance in a parallel circuit is less than any of the individual resistances, which means a larger current value Sensor-a device which converts a physical phenomenon into an electrical signal -they represent part of the interface between the physical world and the world of electrical devices such as computers -the other part of the interface is represented by actuators, which convert electrical signals into physical phenomena Choosing the right sensor Decide first what parameters of the external environment are important for the application E.g. temperature, humidity, pressure, light Determine what kind of sensor is optimal for measuring that parameter Type of sensors Sensors can be categorized in many ways -by the underlying physics of their operation -by the particular phenomenon they measure -by a particular application Analog-output is continuous, output is function of input. Requires analog to digital conversion for interfacing to computer Digital-the output is in form of a digital signal Passive-needs separate power source to obtain the output Active-self-generating which produces electrical signal when subjected to sensed quantity (piezoelectric, thermoelectric, radioactive) Digital Sensors Output can only be in one of two possible states, either on (1), often +5V or off (0), 0V. Most digital sensors work with a threshold -if the incoming measurement is below the threshold, the sensor will output one state, if it is above the threshold, the sensor will output the other state Analog Sensors Output can assume any possible value in a given range -very often the output is a variable resistance that can be used to control a voltage -rather than only being able to toggle between two states, it can output an almost infinite range of values Type of Analog Sensors Rotation Sensor-resistive 3-pin sensor that can rotate 300 degrees -fully clockwise with minimum resistance -fully counter clockwise with maximum resistance Slider Sensor-resistive 3 pin variable resistor similar to a potentiometer -when the slider is at one side, the minimum resistance is 0 -when the slider is at the other end, the maximum resistance is 10kOhm Temperature Sensor-microchip TC1047A sensor that measures ambient temperature from -40 to +125 degrees Celsius -precision temperature to voltage convert that outputs a voltage that is directly proportional to temperature Temperature (in degrees Celsius = (Sensor Value – 200)/4 Touch Sensor-s
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