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IAT 336 (11)
Ken Zupan (11)
Lecture 2

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Interactive Arts & Tech
IAT 336
Ken Zupan

Design Process and Material Evaluation History of Design Materials Ceramics as a Design Material Ceramic is malleable and pliable, it can be pushed, pulled, squeezed, molded, poured, and grounded up -it can be immediate and simple to form, but at the same time it can be highly precise and shockingly hard Most people think of ceramics used for mugs, plates, bowls, and cups -it seems to be the ideal durable, long lasting, and hygienic material for dinnerware -these products are highly functional and can be adorned to create a decorative surface Ceramics have been around since antiquity -Mediterranean and Middle Eastern societies developed ceramics initially from sun-dried brick to over-fried pottery -Amphorae were used by Greeks and Romans for transporting good such as wines and oils which were crucial for trade Ceramics can be used in incredibly advanced applications and applied in extreme situations like the space shuttle -it can be polished to a very smooth luster but it can also be utilized for its rough surface texture Wood as a Design Material Wood has the ability to bring out the designer in all of us -it is so easily accessible and easy to manipulate -it desires to be shaped, carved, scratched, sanded, scored, and nailed Wood is one of the most widely understood materials Wood appears in countless forms -charcoal, building materials, cooking utensils, furniture, books It is probably one of the most used (an abused) materials we utilize Glass as a Design Material Glass as a design material has been around for at least 7000 years Glass is not so much amazing as a material itself, but more in how it has adapted and applied in many areas and applications The invention of glassblowing which was developed in 200 BC experience a renaissance in the 19 century in relation to mass production -Thomas Edison’s tungsten light bulb was a remarkable achievement, yet it can’t be separated from the innovation of glass-forming millions of light bulbs cheaply and efficiently A new formation of glass have paved the way for the development of fibre optics -the ability to manipulate the 7000 year old material into thin strands that can carry light over several miles revolutionized communication Metals as a Design Material Metal will always engage and fascinate us with strength, versatility, and visual beauty -it can be cast into solid shapes from flat sheet into 3D forms, woven and hammered into shape About 75% of the elements in the periodic table are metals, 50% of which are commercially viable -from this list, at least 10,000 varieties of alloys have been developed Metals are in the packaging of the food we eat, we live and work in metal buildings, we wear metals on our body, and we even have metal in our blood -we are close to metals than any other material Plastics as a Design Material For designers plastic is an infinitely adaptable material which easy takes on complex shapes, a material that can be squeezed, pulled, injected, foamed, and sandwiched Plastic embraces mass-production and low cost Plastic is a material of infinite transformation -it is the quintessential actor, mimicking the most expensive porcelain or kitschy trinkets The Design Process What Design Means Design can mean or imply many different things -it is certainly concerned with how things look (form, aesthetics) but also how things work Almost every design involves the balance of appearance and function -this is evident in vases of Ancient Greece to the latest status symbol car Materials are an integral aspect of this balance; they can enhance the functionality and form Nowadays the word design or designer has been adopted by all kinds of people -hairdressers have become hair designers -interior decorators have become interior designers, etc. Design has become inextricably mixed up with street-style, upward mobility, and extravagant consumption In terms of materials and scale, the need for design crosses the whole range of human endeavour -everything from outer plastic housing of a mobile phone to the largest architectural creation Origins of the Design Process An important watershed in the history of design occurred at the time of the industrial revolution in the late 18 century Beforehand, objects were handmade and they continually varied, sometimes variations were deliberate, other times accidental As soon as objects were made by machines, their designs need to be more consciously planned and fixed or given a process Design Process Bubble Analogy Ken Wallace suggests the analogy of the de
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