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Lecture 5

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Interactive Arts & Tech
IAT 336
Ken Zupan

Material Classes Natural Materials: Wood Wood has been in used by humankind since the earliest recorded time -the ancient Egyptians used it for furniture, sculpture and burial caskets before 2500 BC -the Greeks utilized wood for architectural structures and shipbuilding at the height of their empire (700 BC) Wood is soft enough to work with and wrought into different forms Wood offers a remarkable combination of properties -it is light and parallel to the grain, strong, and tough -it is as good per unit weight as any man-made material -it is inexpensive, renewable, and easily machined -when laminated, it can be molded to complex shapes -aesthetically, it is warm both in color and touch -its patina and working properties lend it will to craftsman Laminated wood is made from many thin strips of wood -often these strips are cast-offs or mixed variety of different types of wood -these strips of wood are carefully sanded down so that the surfaces are smooth, and then they are glued together under pressure so that a single cohesive board is created from the mixture of woods -for boards that must be more structurally sound, more layers are added to increase thickness Glass Soda-lime glass has low melting point, is easy to blow and mold, and it is cheap -it is optically clear unless impure when it is typically green or brown Windows today have to be flat which is done by solidifying glass on a bed of liquid tin Plated glass is annealed (slow cooled) to make it tougher Corning’s Gorilla Glass The manufacturing company Corning has developed a product it called Gorilla Glass -the company designed the glass for our electronic lifestyles. As we carry around computers, tablets, smartphones, MP3 players, and other devices, we risk damaging them through everyday use -Corning’s Gorilla Glass stands up to abuse with scratch and impact resistant qualities and Corning’s approach allows the glass to be incredibly thin meaning it won’t interfere with capacitance touch screens or add significant weight to a device -Gorilla Glass is set apart from other kinds of glass through its incredible temperatures, a special trough, robots and a molten salt bath. The finished product is a thin piece of glass than can withstand a lot of punishment Properties of Metals Pure metals are composed of atoms of the same type Metal alloys are composed of two or more chemical elements, one being metal -the majority of metals used in design and engineering applications are alloys Metal are usually divided into ferrous and non-ferrous or iron content and non-iron content Each metal has specific mechanical and physical properties that make it ideal for a specific application Most metal products are combined into alloys creating various properties for specific needs or products -lately, metals have been made available in powder form, making them simpler to alloy Trends: Powdered Metallurgy Powder metallurgy has provided new processes and new metal alloys that can reduce weight while providing enhanced mechanical properties -P/M parts are used in sports products, electronic and office equipment such as levers, sprockets, actuators, and gears -they can be forged as well as injection molded -in addition to the conventional steel and iron alloys, the list of available powders includes new classes of tool steels and cements, and alloys of aluminum copper, nickel, titanium and other non-ferrous metals Ferrous Metals: Irons These are metals which contain iron -they may have small amounts of other metals or other elements added to give the required properties E.g. carbon steel All ferrous metals are magnetic and give little resistance to corrosion E.g. cast iron, gray iron More carbon added = harder Iron: Cast or Wrought Cast iron is poured a heated liquid into a form or mold. It also has low carbon content and is brittle -cast iron tends to be brittle expect for malleable cast irons. With its relatively low melting point, good fluidity, castibility, excellent machinability, resistance to deformation and wear resistance -cast irons have become an engineering material with a wide range of applications and are used in pipes, machines and automotive industry parts such as cylinder heads, cylinder blocks, and gearbox cases. It is resistant to destruction and weakening by oxidation -the earliest cast iron artifacts date back to the 5 century BC and were discovered by archaeologists in what is now modern Luhe County, Juangsu in China Wrought iron was named this way because in the past they were wrought (worked) by hand -before the development of effective methods of steelmaking and the availability of large quantities of steel, wrought iron was the most common form of malleable iron -many items before they came to be made of mild steel were produced from wrought iron including, rivets, nails, wire, chains, rails, railway coupling, water and steam pipes, nuts, bolts, horseshoes, handrails, strap for timber roof trusses, and ornamental ironwork -wrought iron is no longer produced on a commercial scale. Many products designed as wrought iron such as guard rails, garden furniture, and gates are made of mild steel The majority kinds of iron are: Gray Iron-used in automotive engine blocks, gears, flywheels, disk brakes, etc. Gray iron has a very high compressive strength Ductile Iron-applications include crankshafts and heavy duty gears. Ductile iron has a high modulus of elasticity and fatigue strength. It is also easily machinable. Ductile iron has trace amounts of magnesium with improves stiffness Ferrous Metals: High Carbon Steel There are over 3500 varieties of steel -in essence, steel is composed of iron and carbon, although it is the amount of carbon as well as the levels of impurities and additional alloying elements which determine the properties of each steel grade -steel is available as carbon, alloy, tool, high-strength low-alloy and iron-based super alloys -carbon steel, stainless steel and cold-rolled steel are of most interest to designers -contains 0.70-1.5% carbon Steels can be broadly categorized into fo
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