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Interactive Arts & Tech
IAT 336
Ken Zupan

Stresses on Materials Mechanical Properties of Metals When a force is applied to solid material, it may result in translation, rotation, or deformation of the material Ductility-the ability of a material to withstand plastic deformation without rupture E.g. bubble gum-as it is chewed, it does not break up into a new shape Compression-a measure of the extent to which a material deforms prior to rupture E.g. bubble gum Hardness-the ability of a material to withstand penetration and scratching -hardness is important in liquid-state and plastic-state forming E.g. In making a sword, it is important to have hardness in the steel blade to get a sharp edge Brittleness-the opposite of ductility E.g. glass Stress in the Context of Materials When a force is applied to an elastic body, the body deforms -it can occur in a variety of materials The way in which the body deforms depends on the type of force being applied to it E.g. compressive force Forces of Stress In all structures and forms, the forces of stress are the same: compression, tension, torsion, shearing, and bending Stress is the measure of internal forces acting within a deformable body Neutral-no internal forces acting on the object Compression-the direct expression of gravity pulling everything to the center of the earth -the simplest and most basic of stresses E.g. Water quickly flows to the Earth’s low places and is held in place by gravity -measured in PSI (pounds per square inch) Gravity holds most of man-made structures tightly together in compression -columns, piers, posts, pylons rise vertically from the floor or ground in compression to hold the horizontal members, lintels, rafters, and floors away from the ground Form wise, the designed and natural forms that assume mostly compressive loads are usually thick and short like an elephant leg Compression is also produced by the tightening edges of a screw or bolt in squeezing of a peg inside a hole -the air or gas inside the tension membrane acts as the compression element E.g. gas shock inside a car Tension-the completely opposite of compression. Where there is one, there has to be the other -structures are typically light, thin, and often linear in appearance E.g. spider webs, umbrellas, suspension bridges, bicycle wheels spokes Strength: Tension vs. Compression Structures with a majority of compression members are not as strong pound for pound as tension structures E.g. A steel bar one foot long would be able to support a weight of 1000 lbs before buckling however; if used in tension and hanging loads, it would be able to hold up the same 1000 lbs at one foot, two feet, 10 feet, 100 feet, etc. Shearing In structures, shearing and bending is found between the pulling of tension and the pushing of compression Shearing is present when you rub your hands together, shearing sheets of paper with scissors E.g. A deck of cards being held between the thumb and finger of one hand -if the hand closes, compressing the cards together, the deck will bend and the cards on the top will appear longer than those at the bottom. This is due to the curve being shorter diameter on the inside versus the outside which is a combination of compression, shearing, and bending Torsion In structural concerns, torsion is the least prevalent but it is the most complex because it is a result of al
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