IS 210 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Tutsi, Primordialism, Instrumentalism

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IS 210- Week #3
Three Basic Forms of Political Identification
1. Ethnicity
2. Nations
3. Citizenship
Ethnicity
- Culture bonds
- A set of institutions that bind people together through a common culture (i.e. language, race,
language) -> tribes, clan, shared histories and customs
o Serbs -> orthodox
o Croations->
o Bosnian-> Hutus, Tutsi
o Syria-> I“I“: Turke, Goeret: Christia’s & Aleurites & Sunni Arabs, Rebels: Sunni
Arabs & Kurds
- Most ethnic group tend not to share resources
- 3 theories on how ethnic identities emerge, become politically salient and result in social conflict
1. Primordialism: naturally given, remain stable, unchanged overtime, psychological
explanation -> Samuel Huntington, civilizations are fundamentally different and categorized
into 8 separate types.
Ancient hatred & psychological factors
2. Instrumentalism: first theory to challenge Primordialism, originates from rational choice
theories & elite theories, political elites are leading actors in ethnicity (they manipulate)
Geographical concentration-> resource (trigger), consistence of a facilitative environment
Arab spring allowed position groups in the region -> failed state of Libya
Resource copetitio & security dilea
Security dilemma:
3. Constructivism: shifted from elites towards ordinary people (brazil)
Nations
- Ethnicity, territory, state
- A set of institutions that bind people together through political aspirations at the state level
- 2 basic forms of nationalism:
1. Civic nationalism: political unity, shared territory, shared legal system
2. Cultural: Ethnic/ culture unity, biology, racism
Citizenship
- Rights and duties vis-à-vis the state
- Brazil: existence of a two-tiered form of citizenship-> no universal individual rights, Alegria
- Civil rights (freedom and equality), political rights (political action), Social rights (welfare-> public
health, education, pension)
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Document Summary

Three basic forms of political identification: ethnicity, nations, citizenship. Most ethnic group tend not to share resources. 3 theories on how ethnic identities emerge, become politically salient and result in social conflict: primordialism: naturally given, remain stable, unchanged overtime, psychological explanation -> samuel huntington, civilizations are fundamentally different and categorized into 8 separate types. Instrumentalism: first theory to challenge primordialism, originates from rational choice theories & elite theories, political elites are leading actors in ethnicity (they manipulate) Geographical concentration-> resource (trigger), consistence of a facilitative environment. Arab spring allowed position groups in the region -> failed state of libya. Security dilemma: constructivism: shifted from elites towards ordinary people (brazil) A set of institutions that bind people together through political aspirations at the state level. 2 basic forms of nationalism: civic nationalism: political unity, shared territory, shared legal system, cultural: ethnic/ culture unity, biology, racism. Brazil: existence of a two-tiered form of citizenship-> no universal individual rights, alegria.

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