•LING200||F ALL 2013 C LASS7,17O CT .
•CLAUSE & SENTENCE TYPES
•Up until now we have been working mainly with simple sentences
that consist of a single independent clause (i.e., one subject and
one predicate) or compound sentences that consist of two (or
more) independent clauses joined by a coordinating or correlative
conjunction (WB pp.144-5 and 149).
•Now we must consider complex sentences that consist of one
independent clause and one or more subordinate or dependent
clauses. (WB chapters 12 and 13.) A subordinate clause cannot
stand on its own ▯ it depends on another idea.
•▯ere are also compound-complex sentences that consist
of more than one independent clause and one or more
subordinate clauses (WB pp. 161-163).
1 •▯ere are several types of subordinate (dependent) clauses, some of
which are shown on WB169.
•▯e one that we’re immediately concerned with is the noun modi▯er
clause or relative clause. We abbreviate this as RELCL.
•As Morenberg (Chapter 6) points out, these are sometimes
called “adjective clauses” because ▯ you guessed it ▯ they
function as adjectives.
•▯ At this point, you don’t have to worry about the
“restrictive” part of Morenberg’s label; we’ll come to the
distinction between restrictiveand non-restrictive
modi▯cation later in the course.
•For starters, note that a RELCL is embedded within a matrix clause.
▯ey are always part of NPs. ▯ey follow and modify head nouns.
•Consider the following sentences:
2 •1. “▯e boy who climbed the hill was Jack.
•“who climbed the hill” is a RELCL modifying the head N that is in the
NP:Subj “▯e boy” .
•2. “Jack fetched some water that was in the well.”
•“that was in the well” is a RELCL modifying the head N that is in the
NP:DO “some water” .
•3. “Jack gave the water to the womanwho lived next door.”
•“who lived next door” is a RELCL modifying the head N that is in the
NP:IO “the woman who lived next door” .
•4. “Jack’s sister was the girl who accompanied him.”
•“who accompanied him” is a RELCL modifying the head N that is in
the NP:PredN “the girl” .
3 •RELCLs are frequently (but not always) marked by a relative
pronoun, which we’ll label RelPro. ▯ere is also a relative
determiner, whose, which we’ll label RelDet.
•Now, to be▯er understand the function of RELCLs, we need to
understand how they are built.
•Case #1: Subjects
•We can think of “▯e boy who climbed the hill was Jack” as
comprising two statements:
•i) ▯e boy was Jack.
•ii) Jack climbed the hill.
•Convert (b) to a RELCL by changing the Subj to a RelPro:
•Jack climbed the hill. So the RelPro “who” plays the role of subject
within the relative clause. 4 •Case #2: Direct Objects
•“Goldilocks ate the porridge that Mama Bear had cooked. ”
•Let’s break it down:
•i) Goldilocks ate the porridge.
•ii) Mama Bear had cooked the porridge.
•Step #1: replace the DO with a RelPro:
•Mama Bear had cooked the porridge.
•Step #2: move the RelPro to the front of the clause:
•that Mama bear had cooked
5 •Case #3: Indirect Objects
•“▯e person who(m) she gave the basket was Gra