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LING 200 (3)


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Simon Fraser University
LING 200
Cliff Burgess

•LING200||F ALL 2013 C LASS7,17O CT . •CLAUSE & SENTENCE TYPES •Up until now we have been working mainly with simple sentences that consist of a single independent clause (i.e., one subject and one predicate) or compound sentences that consist of two (or more) independent clauses joined by a coordinating or correlative conjunction (WB pp.144-5 and 149). •Now we must consider complex sentences that consist of one independent clause and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. (WB chapters 12 and 13.) A subordinate clause cannot stand on its own ▯ it depends on another idea. •▯ere are also compound-complex sentences that consist of more than one independent clause and one or more subordinate clauses (WB pp. 161-163). 1 •▯ere are several types of subordinate (dependent) clauses, some of which are shown on WB169. •▯e one that we’re immediately concerned with is the noun modi▯er clause or relative clause. We abbreviate this as RELCL. •As Morenberg (Chapter 6) points out, these are sometimes called “adjective clauses” because ▯ you guessed it ▯ they function as adjectives. •▯ At this point, you don’t have to worry about the “restrictive” part of Morenberg’s label; we’ll come to the distinction between restrictiveand non-restrictive modi▯cation later in the course. •For starters, note that a RELCL is embedded within a matrix clause. ▯ey are always part of NPs. ▯ey follow and modify head nouns. •Consider the following sentences: 2 •1. “▯e boy who climbed the hill was Jack. •“who climbed the hill” is a RELCL modifying the head N that is in the NP:Subj “▯e boy” . •2. “Jack fetched some water that was in the well.” •“that was in the well” is a RELCL modifying the head N that is in the NP:DO “some water” . •3. “Jack gave the water to the womanwho lived next door.” •“who lived next door” is a RELCL modifying the head N that is in the NP:IO “the woman who lived next door” . •4. “Jack’s sister was the girl who accompanied him.” •“who accompanied him” is a RELCL modifying the head N that is in the NP:PredN “the girl” . 3 •RELCLs are frequently (but not always) marked by a relative pronoun, which we’ll label RelPro. ▯ere is also a relative determiner, whose, which we’ll label RelDet. •Now, to be▯er understand the function of RELCLs, we need to understand how they are built. •Case #1: Subjects •We can think of “▯e boy who climbed the hill was Jack” as comprising two statements: •i) ▯e boy was Jack. •ii) Jack climbed the hill. •Convert (b) to a RELCL by changing the Subj to a RelPro: •Who •Jack climbed the hill. So the RelPro “who” plays the role of subject within the relative clause. 4 •Case #2: Direct Objects •“Goldilocks ate the porridge that Mama Bear had cooked. ” •Let’s break it down: •i) Goldilocks ate the porridge. •ii) Mama Bear had cooked the porridge. •Step #1: replace the DO with a RelPro: • that •Mama Bear had cooked the porridge. •Step #2: move the RelPro to the front of the clause: •that Mama bear had cooked 5 •Case #3: Indirect Objects •“▯e person who(m) she gave the basket was Gra
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