LBST 307 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Capacity Building, Pol Pot, Jus Gentium

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Week 3 Lecture January 25th
What is Labor, a commodity, and freedom?
Conceptualizing Labor Unfreedom : Three Paradigms
Definition of Slavery:
o Bales ( Libaral) Old Slavery- based around the legalownership of other human
beings , New Slavery totail control of one person by another for the purpose of
economic exploitation
o Van Den Anker (Human Rights) Contemporary Slavery Cosmopolitan
perspective which emphasizes the universality of human rights, not limited to
legal defintions of slavery
o Miles (Marxist) Slavery is a form of unfree labor. It is an economic category
allows world trade and essentially capitalism to thrive. Expoitation of human
chattels.
Causality (what has caused the new slavery?)
o Bales (Liberal) Profit and vulnerability (poverty + illiteracy + corruption + threat
of violence)
o Van den Anker (Human Rights) Structual factors- poverty, ethnicity
o Miles (Marxist) Exploitation of free wage labor, which is the underlying feature
of the capitalist mode of production
Role of race and gender in shaping slavery
o Bales (Liberal) No role new slavery does not discriminate
o Van den Anker (Human Rights) New slavery does nt discriminate but
important to look at who is poor an therefore vulnerable.
o Miles (Marxist) One of the most prominent underlying causes of unfree labor
is racism however not always the case.
Relation of new slavery to globalization of capitalism
o Bales (Liberal) : New Slavery and globalization fundamentally related. Mobility
of capital allows multination corporations and investors to seek cheap wages and
high returns while western consumers demand high-quality goods at ever lower
prices
o Van den Anker (Human Rights) : Gloablization causes increased poverty;
increased poverty cleared vulnerability
o Miles (Marxit): Temporary migration programs and limited host transferability
(he people ho igate hae to sta ith the sposo hos ought the
over) a feature of globalization contribution to exploitation
Role of the State and the law
o Bales (Liberal) : States need to move beyond the legal definition of slavery.
Legal definition fails to capture the reality of slave like practices
o Van den Anker (Human Rights) : State should iron tensions between society and
system. State regulation and enforcement of laws.
o Miles (Marxist): Eliminate labor commodification
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Bales Plan of Action
Emphasize the role of individuals
Outlines a range of remedial strategies and more general principles
These include paradigms for replication and up-scaling successful models of protection
fo slae lieatos fo aklash fo slaeholdes
‘ae eas little e hae eual oppotuit slae although this ist eesail
true.
The est defese agaist ode da sla is a igilat puli. Be a os eigho
Marxist Understanding of Free ad Ufree laor
Ma halleged the ia etee fee ad ufee lao
Continuum of labor relations that make up the social relations of production and
reproduction
Each with varying degrees and forms of coercion, constraint, violent, and immobility.
Marx
1. The “o Called Priitie Auulatio
Process by which precapitalist modes of production (ex, feudalism and chattel slavery),
are transformed into the capitalist mode of production.
Argument against Adma “iths positio o oigial auulatio i ealth of
Nations
2. Circulation
Freedom of choice in the labor market is cyclical and illusory ueasig oeet of
pofit akig
Even in wage labor, the laborer is bound to the employer
Independence of the wage-laborer is essentially a legal fiction of a contract.
3. Experience of the Labor Process
Labor process includes subjection to direct control and supervision
This is done in exchange for wages
Wage laborers in the capitalist system are
Free Labor
Emergence of wage labor constitutes transformation of servitude over time
Enslavement of the worker was a starting point in this
A Market in Labor
Labor becomes a commodity, with the appearance of freedom
However, this is an illusion
All the notions of justice held by both the worker and the capitalist, have as their basis
the form of appearance.
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