LBST 307 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: United Nations Economic And Social Council, Legal Certainty, Chelwood

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Brooke N. Nea , historical Perspecties: “laery oer the Cetury. I Mary C.
Burke (Ed.), Human Trafficking: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. New York: N.Y. Routledge
Learning Objectives
Describe the basic features of the institution of slavery, from ancient history to the
present.
Recognize important periods and significant players in the history of slavery and human
trafficking
Explain how slave systems have enabled sexual exploitation of women and girls.
Sketch out milestones in global efforts to criminalize and eradicate slavery and the
global trade in human beings and assess their long term impact.
Recognize and compare ancient, pre-modern, and contemporary forms of human
bondage.
Recognize the difference between historical forms of slavery and human trafficking in
the modern world.
Common Features of the Institution of Slavery
Surviving inventories of items bough and sold in the ancient Middle Eastern civilization
of Sumeria (4000 2300 BCE), the first culture to leave written records, indicate that
merchants bought and sold human beings 5,000 years ag along with other commodities
deemed valuable.
The pervasiveness of slavery through the years has allowed it to exists
For centuries humans have served as the chief of commodities of localized and global
trade
The continual search for cheap and plentiful sources of labor has motivated the capture,
purchase, and transport of millions of men, women, and children throughout the world.
Since the ancient period, masters have utilized their slaves in a wide range of tasks
including agriculture, mining, domestic service, manufactures, military defense, and
even business and administration while also being exposed to sexual abuse.
Societies that have practiced slavery have tended to dehumanize workers and treat
them as capital
Slaver consists of an unequal balance of power between two or more people that is
designed to benefit the master rather than the slave
To slae oes a slaes apacity to labor and produce a surplus over the cost of his or
her upkeep- or submit to sexual or reproductive exploitation in lieu of manual labor,
was of central importance
In pre-modern African, for instance, many tribal communities used enslavement as a
means of recruitment for the kinship group, but could eventually enter into full
membership of the group.
Also most societies with slaves marginalized the enslaved population by ensuring that
chiefly persons considered outsiders to the community were subjected to the indignities
of slavery.
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The word Slave comes from Slav, a term used to describe people sold into slavery to the
Muslim of southern Spain and North Africa during the Middle Ages who originated in
the “lai egios of easte Euope. 
There is also a long record of voluntary slavery in human history, often known as debt
bondage.
Slavery was also filled with war prisoners
In environments with the connections to their own ancestry and people severed, slaves
experienced what the sociologist Orlado Patteso has teed “oial Death, liig
publicly on the margins of another society with no social identity, rights, or privelages.
Debt slaves were commonly held in higher esteem than, and not identified with, foreign
born slaves. Chattel slavery as ot soethig doe to oes o people
Heitale Coditio is aothe haateisti that aiet ad ode slae sste
shae he thee of Chattel status. I the ees of the la a slae possesses o
eogizale ale paet. If oes othe is a slave, the one is automatically subject to
the same fate.
Hereditable status also keeps slave systems function by providing owners with a steady
stream of human property.
Slavery in Ancient Societies
From objects and texts we know slavery has been around since 4000 BCE in
Mesopotamia, between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers (now modern Iraq)
When farming techniques improved enough to produce settled communities with
growing populations and surplus food, it became increasingly clear that whoever
owned the land and possessed the human beings who worked it could gain both
property and free labor.
Instead of killing captured opposing soldiers they were put to work.
The Code of Hammurabi ruler of Babylon 1792-1750 BCE stated that slaves were
property but Male slaves could own property, marry free women, and potentially
purchase their freedom while the women could not.
He also made distinctions between debt slaves and all other slave, persons in debt
bondage were to be released by their owners after a period of three year, while chattel
slaves recruited by capture, sale or punishment for criminal behavior would remain
enslaved fro life.
It ast util rd Centuries BCE that the autonomous city-states of Ancient Greece,
particularly Athens, became dependent on slave labor and hence fully fledge slave
societies.
At the height of Athens in the middle of the 5th Century BCE, Athens contained a
greater proportion of slaves than free citizens, with an estimated population of 100k
slaves and 40k free adult males.
Athenians viewed Chattle slavery as a necessity because it allowed the most privilege
class of free citizens to turn their attention to political and cultural matters rather than
to unsavory tasks associated with manual labor.
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Although all occupations were open to slaves, except those of politicians and soldiers,
the majority of slaves were employed in domestic, agricultural, and industrial labor.
Geeks teded to eslae foeiges ad iigats, ko as aaias, but also
subjected marginalized and desperate members of their own polities to bondage as
well.
Greeks outlawed enslaving native Greeks in 594 BCE in which slaves had to be
noncitizens born in foreign lands generally captives of war purchased at market
Slavery existed in ancient Rome from its earliest stage of development, and as the
Roman Republic expanded into a vast empire over a period of several centuries, it
became the largest slave society in the ancient world.
Female slaves of childbearing age were ael feed, thei hilde ade up ¾s of
‘oes total populatio of eslaed laoes. Mastes epeted thei feale slaes to
produce offspring to replenish the slave supply.
Roman law, slaves were considered property rather than people, human objects lacking
kin, honor, or a social identity.
Medieval and Early Modern Slavery
Between the six and thirteenth centuries, slavery gradually died out in Western Europe
as feudalism emerged as the dominant social system
In highly ritualized feudal agreements, lords offered knights a fief, typically the right to
use or govern lands and manors, in exchange for their loyalty and service in war.
African Slavery and the Atlantic Slave Trade
To produce labor-intensive crops such as tobacco, sugarcane, and cotton for distant
European markets required a large and plentiful workforce.
Indigenous peoples were initially employed as laborers throughout the Americas,
especially in the Spanish-operate silver and gold mines of Mexico and the Andes
Though the transatlantic African slave trade began rather slowly in the sixteenth
century, by the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the trafficking of bound African
laborers had blossomed into a large-scale enterprise capable of supplying slaves to labor
in the sugarcane fields of the West Indies; the mines and coffee and sugar plantations of
South America and Central America; and the tobacco, rice, and cotton fields of North
America. During this period, Europeans grew increasingly unwilling to perform the
grueling agricultural tasks that they demanded Africans to perform under threat of
physical and psychological violence.
While eal oloists had tpiall efeed to theseles as Chistias ad thei
Afia ad Aeidia slaes as heathes, during the seventeenth cen- tury this
teiolog as gaduall eplaed  the tes hite ad lak o Nego. I
colonies as disparate as Brazil in South America, Barbados in the West Indies, and
Vigiia i Noth Aeia, the te Nego eat eig both a slave and inferior.
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