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By the end of Meditation 2.docx

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Dc Mc

By the end of Meditation 2, Descartes has some foundational beliefs. - That I am thinking. - That it seems to me that I‟m in lecture. - That I feel warm… - What about „phantom pain‟? - Phantom pain: pain on a limb (for example) that isn‟t really there. They actually can be in pain. Granting infallible access to our own thoughts and sensations - Even for Descartes, we don‟t have infallible access to the causes of our sensations and thoughts. - So, more work is needed to ground any knowledge of the external world. - Descartes adds to his foundations: God exists. God is not a deceiver If God exists and is not a deceiver, He would have given me a way to arrive at true beliefs. - Descartes thinks that if God had not given me the ability to learn the truth, He would be, in effect, a deceiver. - Descartes things that God has given him the ability to form „clear and distinct‟ ideas, and those one are true. 1. I now believe that I am in a lecture hall 2. My present belief is clear and distinct. 3. Clean and distinct ideas are true. Therefore… I am now in a lecture hall. - Using clear and distinct ideas is Descarte‟s „rule‟ (…) - How does Descartes know that if God exists, He is not a deceiver? By introspection. - Introspection: Thinking of your own thoughts. - It‟s part of his idea/concept of God that He is perfect in all ways. Omnipotent (all perfect), omniscient (all knowing), omnibenevolent (all powerful), omnipresent (always present) How does Descartes know that God exists? - Because of the nature of his idea of God. - Descartes asks: how, possibly, could an idea have come to me? 1. Innate: comes from within, born with it. Reality, truth, though…? Maybe he was born with them. 2. Acquired: you get it in light of your experiences through your senses. Ideas from hearing a noise, seeing the sun…? 3. Invented by himself: not a matter of experience nor is he both with them. Sirens, hippogriffs…? An important distinction - Formal vs representational reality - Actual or formal reality or perfection. Formal reality - If there are actual things, they fall on a scale of Formal reality or perfection. - Some thin
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