What is PHIL?
- What makes things the thing it is?
- Defines right from wrong.
Divisions of PHIL
- Metaphysics – Study of nature of things.
- Epistemology – Nature of knowledge and beliefs.
- Axiology – Worth of various things.
- Logic – Study of inference patterns.
- Argument - Set of propositions, one of which is supported by the
- Proposition – A claim/statement
- Declarative sentence – T or F.
- Dogmatic – Inflexible in one’s beliefs.
- Assurance – Certain
- Render – Make
- Contemplate – Think about
How to figure out what’s going on in a passage
1. Read it.
2. Read over it.
3. Look for the premise. (Words like because/therefore)
4. Sub-argument/material not directly relevant.
5. Where’s the author going? Why?
Three relevant attitudes one can have towards a proposition
1. Believe it.
2. Disbelieve it.
3. Suspend judgment.
SAK – Standard Analysis of Knowledge
Believe, True, Justified.
All necessary and sufficient.
1. Belief – S is justified in believing P.
2. True – P is true and,
3. Justified – S believes that P.
- If S knows that P, than all 3 conditions are met:
One cannot know propositions one does not believe.
One cannot know false propositions. One cannot know what one is not justified in believing.
- If P, then Q - Conditional
if (antecedent), then (consequent) -> true when antecedent is
sufficient for consequent.
- If P, then Q
P therefore Q. – Valid
If the form has all true premises, all conclusions must be true.
- P and Q - Conjunction
If both its conjuncts are true.
- P or Q - Disjunction
If at least one of it