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Dc Mc (22)


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Dc Mc

PHIL What is PHIL? - What makes things the thing it is? - Defines right from wrong. Divisions of PHIL - Metaphysics – Study of nature of things. - Epistemology – Nature of knowledge and beliefs. - Axiology – Worth of various things. - Logic – Study of inference patterns. What is… - Argument - Set of propositions, one of which is supported by the other. - Proposition – A claim/statement - Declarative sentence – T or F. - Dogmatic – Inflexible in one’s beliefs. - Assurance – Certain - Render – Make - Contemplate – Think about How to figure out what’s going on in a passage 1. Read it. 2. Read over it. 3. Look for the premise. (Words like because/therefore) 4. Sub-argument/material not directly relevant. 5. Where’s the author going? Why? Three relevant attitudes one can have towards a proposition 1. Believe it. 2. Disbelieve it. 3. Suspend judgment. SAK – Standard Analysis of Knowledge Believe, True, Justified. All necessary and sufficient. 1. Belief – S is justified in believing P. 2. True – P is true and, 3. Justified – S believes that P. - If S knows that P, than all 3 conditions are met: One cannot know propositions one does not believe. One cannot know false propositions. One cannot know what one is not justified in believing. Sentences - If P, then Q - Conditional if (antecedent), then (consequent) -> true when antecedent is sufficient for consequent. - If P, then Q P therefore Q. – Valid If the form has all true premises, all conclusions must be true. - P and Q - Conjunction If both its conjuncts are true. - P or Q - Disjunction If at least one of it
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