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Phil001 note3.doc

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Simon Fraser University
PHIL 105

#3 Well-formed Arguments 1) deductively valid (or just: valid) arguments; 2) inductively cogent arguments (or just: cogent). Patterns of argument Pattern 1 Pattern 2 1. AllAs are Bs. 1. Either P or Q. 2. x is anA. 2. ~Q (Q is false) So -------- 3. x is a B. 3. P. In Example 3 1. Either Mike is in the cafeteria or Mike is in the library. 2. Mike isn’t in the cafeteria. So 3. Mike is in the library It is whole sentences that are repeated. The whole conclusion appears in the first premise. So it is sentential logic. Sentential connectives Conjunction P and Q Disjunction P or Q Negation ~P Conditional If P then Q Biconditional P if and only if Q Note: the biconditional is the conjunction of ‘If P then Q’and ‘If Q then P’. Argument By Elimination Conjunction 1. Either P or Q 1. P 2. ~P 2. Q 3. Q 3. P and Q 1. Either P or Q This shows that if two sentences are true, 2. ~Q then so is their conjunction. 3. P Simplification Affirming theAntecedent (Modus 1. P and Q Ponens) 2. P 1. If P then Q 1. P and Q
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