Degrees of Cogency: Anything less than 50%, will give an ill-formed argument.
1) Deductively valid;
2) Have premises that are justified, or reasonable/rational to believe.
1. deductively valid;
2. premises are reasonable to believe
3. It is not circular
Deductively weak if:
4. Invalid OR
5. One or more of its premises is not reasonable to believe.; OR
6. It is a circular argument.
Acircular argument presupposes the truth of the claim that it is arguing for.
7. The bible says that
8. The bible was written by God.
9. God exists
SoundArguments: valid, true premises, anyone has reason to believe them.
An argument is defeated by a person’s total evidence if and only if:
-The argument is cogent;
-The person's total evidence shows that the conclusion is not reasonable to believe.