PHIL 120W Lecture Notes - Sophia (Wisdom), Critical Thinking, Stoicism
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PHIL – Values & Contemporary Issues 1
2500 years ago Greece started philosophy, then Romans
o In Latin
Philos (looking) + Sophia (wisdom) = philosophy
Socrates (street philosophy) taught Plato (western philosophy)
Types of Philosophy:
Metaphysics – “after the physical”
o Ultimate nature?
o What is something?
Epistemology – study of knowledge
o How do we know for certain?
o Rene Descartes are we really dreaming?
Critical thinking – analyzing
Mind – brain vs. soul
Politics – best state?
Aesthetics – philosophy of art (sports, art, beauty, etc)
Ethics – what is right and wrong?
Skills for Philosophy:
Abstract (God, love, etc)
Argue – justify positions
Values in life determines how you live Socrates’ values determined he died for a reason
Epicurus – a simple god indulging in life’s pleasures
Goal = achieve peace of mind like Buddhism
Famous for saying one shouldn’t marry or have sex because it is not conducive to peace of mind “it’s
boring to marry or have sex”
Stoics – “everything happens for a reason”
Someone who believes his motto will not be hit as hard by events because they think it happened for a
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