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POL 100 Lecture Notes

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Political Science
POL 100
Sherri Brown

September 9, 2009 Chapter 1 What Is Political Science? Politics affect us even if we dont feel it. They are the decision making tools. Politics is about who get what, when and how. Herald Decisions are based on ideologies. Politics is the same way. Politics concerns with power Decisions are all about the exercise of power Where power derives from o How are you empowered Power over - the reason why one group is being targeted is stemming from a lack of strong political organization. Where the specific power is located and how is that power exercised over whom? **system of distributing of societys power and wealth and decision** Marx (German writer, did his writing in france & England) class analysis Class analysis: Bourgeoisie: businessman, owned factories, traded, etc. Working class: people who worked at the factories, traded, etc Political revolution (French revolution): when ppl overthrow whole system of government Socialhistorical revolution: (1700-1900 england) system of government changes, changes because everyone takes part in it, etc. New technology happens, people go to the city, not work in the farms, and they now run factories, or run machines, with mass production, etc. Four main approaches to political science studies Class analysis o System: How society shaped in the past o Structures (what is overriding social structure) Canada is referred as a social -democratic capitalist modern state (eg. Sweden, Norway) socialism is that government takes care of the common good: vs. taxes, health care, government redistributes the money from taxes in social goods Sweden, Nederland, germany social democratic state democratic: government by people, people are voted on communism: everyone worked, then government would take everything and then redistribute it: eg. Wheat farmers (china 1950-70, north korea 1990-2000s) capitalism: people directly tradebuysell on their own without government monitoring Marx believes structure can be used to analyze classes o Systematic inequalities Differential outcomes Differences between people (eg. Richpoor, educatednot educated) Systematic: looking at the whole system and how it works Eg. How easy can people go from poor to rich = good example of how to measure systematic inequalities == social mobility Disciplinary power and dividing practices social mobility (naming people who are abnormal, etc) , when we leave people out, o Weather people can climb the social ladder o Society trying to discipline people; that society has a series of structures, values to discipline people in behaving a certain way, etc LEFT WING: people believe that the society is unequal in every way and make o Liberal: freedom to make your own decision o More likely to believe in individual rights o Negative rights o Freedom from the governmentpower and freedom TO have thingsetc. (beliefs, money and rights) o Comes from Marxist tradition, positive rights, freedom to make sure people have foodeducation, etc. o TODAY, people on the left wing have a combination of liberal and socialist o Free speech: liberal, socialism: want government to feed or give shelter to homeless RIGHT WING: conservatives o May not be interested in freedom of speech or oppression, believe in o however most ppl who vote conservative often believes in private o keep it the way it is or they think society can change but slowly and benefit themselves The way we apply these terms have changed over time Power and Authority Authority: socially approved power o Supported by institution o Comes with sanction and punishment Traditional authority o Derived on traditional, custom heredity o Not opened to challenge and debate Charismatic authority o Barrack obama (legal rational) o Oprah o Demogog: authority through spoken charisma (eg. Martin luther king) Legal rational authority o Based on rule of law, the bureaucratic structures, etc. o Courts, constitution, bureaucracy, etc. o Require public legitimacy to function, and will break down and corrupt once legitimacy is gone o Not key to traditional or charismatic authority o Like a social contract: at one time, the society came together and set Sovereignty supreme power
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