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Lecture 12

POL 100 Lecture 12: notes for the whole course

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Political Science
POL 100
Loganathan Masilamani

Thursday Jan 10 • Who gets what, when, and how? -- Harold Lasswell • The authorative allocation of values for society -- David Easton • The art of the possible – Utto Von Bismatck • That activity in which conflicting interests struggle for advantage Political Systems Decision > Output > Feedback > Input > Decision… - Does not work in totalitarian societies Central concepts Politics and government Power  Coercion  Influence  Authority/persuation Power: ability to impose one’s will on another or to get what one wants Coercion: imposition of one’s will on another b y the use of penalty, force, or the threat of force - Negative power concept Persuasion: activity engaging people to convince them of the soundness of your ideas, or the problems, they will encounter if they follow other ideas • Ie. Take away allowance Influence: to create a state of mind in others where they anticipate your needs and interests and then accommodate them in their actions Legitimacy Legitimacy: an ethical judegment that something is right and proper Types of legitimacy: • Regime • Functional • Policy Authority Rand Dyck refers to authority as legitimate power Essence of authority is something more • The ability to make decisions which others consider binding and obey Sources of authority • Traditional deference • Legal powers of office • Personal charisma o Changes your mind. Ie: jfk, hitler, Ghandi • Fear of force o Defiance will result in jail • Personal agreement with the command • Strategic compliance to achieve goals o Ie. Pay cut to ultimately reach one’s goals • Acquiescence* *Aquiescence comes from latin “quiescene” (to become quiet), to give up. • Quietly going along with something, wherther or not you actually understand, agree with, or support the decision or command. o It is not worth the bother to complain, question or object  Ie. Not allowed to chew gum in Singapore th Thursday January 17 2013 States and Governments: Power and Authority in Motion • Multination states need a government • Rousseau/john locke social contract o Government is elected by people • Totalitarian regime does not get elected Government • Government is the set of institution and practices that makes and enforces collective public decisions for a society --Rand Dyck o He’s in charge for making decisions for us  Ie. health care • Four parts to a government: o 1) executive  Head of state queen of england  Head of government  prime minister o 2) legislature (elected and paid to represent our needs) o 3) civil service (or bureaucracy) o 4) judiciary • Functions of government: o Rule-making  Made by legislature o Rule-application  How are you going to apply these rules to the people  o Rule adjudication  Judiciary sees if the law is fair, if they are constitutional to everyone in the society Different types of Govt • Aristocrarcy – rule of the few for the common good o Talks about how the government should be set up o ‘philosopher kings’ are born to rule the society, for the good of the society • Autocracy – rule of the one in their own interest o Ie Iraq, Syria, Libya • Democracy – rule of the people for the common interest o We rule ourselves o Elect our representatives that are supposed to represent us • Monarchy – rule of the one for the common interest o Bloodline of rulers  Only one ruler at a time o Canada is a constitutional monarchy  Constitution limits the queen/kings power • Oligarchy – rule of the elite for their own interest • Plutocracy – rule of the rich, for their own interest • Theocracy – rule of the priesthood in their religion’s interest Singapore referred to autocracy and oligarchy Main attributes of democracy • Free and fair elections o No bribing votes, everyone can run to be elected o Elections every 5 years o Social contract needs to be addressed often • Active civil society o Freedom to protest to some extent • Respect for the rule of law Types of democracies • Liberal democracy o Tested and proven to last • Transitional democracy o May have been authoritarian  Soviet union crumbled into Russia • Political culture needs to change to accommodate structure that changes over time o Tests to go through before becoming liberal democracy o Same 22 amendment as America  You can only serve for two terms • Façade democracy o Appears to be democratic but it isn’t really o Have free choice and free elections, appears to be democratic o Only one political party in rule for many years Façade ----------------- transitional----------------liberal Mad weber’s definition of the state “…a human community that (successfully) claims the monopoly of legitimate use of physical force within a given territory.” 1618-1648 • 30 year war o Treaty of Westphalia Characteristics of the state • Territory o We have water o Naval bases • Sovereignty o Limit use of power • Institutions Sovereignty • Sovereignty means that no other state is making authoritative decisions for that state – either for its domestic politics or its foreign policies o Ie the USA doesn’t make decisions for us o Absolute control over state/institution • Internal • External • This is a relative condition Elements of the modern state • Population o Must have people living in the states • Territory • Political institutions o Civil service, judicial, etc • Monopoly on the legitimate use of force • International recognition o United Nations will decide if you meet the first 4 criteria Nation-State • Nation is a cultural grouping. The original meaning of the word was to describe a ‘stock’ or ‘breed’ of people. • The state is the political entity. o There can be a state without a single nation, with several nations (a multi-national state). o There are also many nations without states; some of whom, would like to have their own state Japan is the closest you will have to a nation state. Hitler tried to create a nation state. Canada is a multinational state. Vatican City is a state without a nation Palestinian is a nation without a state Can there be a nation with more than one state? – Yes. North/South Korea. Types of States • De Jure – “exists in law” – formally recognized by other states • De Facto – “exist as a matter of fact” – informal state o Taiwan aka “Republic of China” Assumptions of Nationalism • Certain identified populations have shared characteristics that make them nations • The world is divided into nations • Nations have the right to self-determination o You can create your own state and make policies for yourself  Ie quebec Authoritarian and totalitarian regimes • Desire to maintain power at all costs • Government subject to no constituational limitations • No authorized process to change the government o No elections, or not stated in the constitution when the elections will be held • Citizens have few rights (if any) • Use of excessive force to control population • Glorification of regime’s leaders o Ie. North korea… leaders are descendants of god • Strict control of the mass media o Control facebook or google, newspaper, tv o Authoritarian  Political control limited to public sphere  No coherent ideology • Different political societies may exist (but may never win the election) o Totalitarian  Political control in all spheres (both public and private) • Who you interact with is controlled  Single party and ideology • Public spheres are school, work, etc • Private spheres are home, where you pray, etc Constitiution limits the power of the government • We are all equal before the law  Totalitarian governments can be abided from the law January 24 2013 Power of Ideas: Political Theory and Ideology Only dealing with three in this class: 1. Liberalism o Classical > reform 2. Conservativism 3. Communism Ideology: a reasonably consistent system of political beliefs that inspires to explain the world, to justify certain power relationships, and to maintain or transform certain institutions o Ideologies are used to conveniently discuss kinds of political orientations o and sets of preferecnes without having to specify where an individual stands on every issue o Ideologies never work precisely the way their advocates claim. Some are hideous failures. All ideologies contain a certain amount of wishful thinking which frequently collapses in the face of reality. Components of ideology: 1. Human nature o Self interest of the society 2. Individual o Born into society with certain rights and freedom  Ie. Prochoice vs prolife, where does the right start from? When conceived or when born? 3. The role of the state 4. Political authority o Locke’s social contract o Our ballot votes for them o Authority comes from us (the people) 5. The economic and social order The goals of ideology 1. Doing it right o If you’re doing it my way 2. Leadership 3. Purpose 4. Critique 5. Prescription Ideological spectrum Left > center > right communism > democratic socialism (ndp) > liberalism > conservatism > Nazism, fasicm Where does femism/environmentalism/nationalism/populism stand? Edmund Burke – Father of conservatism John Stuart Mill – one of the most important philosphers of liberalism Classical liberalism - Positive view of human nature and self interest - Autonomy of the individual is paramount - Laissez faire approach to the economy: very limited government regulation - Limited government to protect the rights of citizens - No need for social welfare. EG: EI, food stamps - ‘will of the people’ is key to the government authority and legitimacy - Liberty is ‘freedom from’ - Equality is equal treatment under the law - Very restricted electorate John stuart Mill said: only when murder occurs do you take away his freedom Adam Smither said: economy will set itself up History of the electorial franchise 1. Men, property owners, nobles, white + middle age  Females, Asian, fire nation  18 years old, Canadian o Universal franchise Reform liberalism - Mixed view of human nature - Believe in universal franchise - Unrestricted free market produces some harm - Increased role of the state needed to regulate economy - Accept some duty for state to provide social welfare programs - Ideas of libery and freedom now includes the positive power to act o Martin luther king o Can argue against laws if reasonable - Concept of equality expanded to include equality of opportunity o Subsidies, loans, grants, etc Canada has a strong financial policy January 31 2013 Classical conservatism – Edmund burke - Mixed view of human nature - Self-interest eventually harmful o Looking after your own needs alone, causes more harm than good in society - Society is organic whole composed of hierarchy of layers o Eg, upper class, middle class, lower class based on economic earning power and prestige - Equality of all is not important o People treated based on their class level - Elites have right to rule but responsibilities for welfare of others – “noblesse oblige” o Noblemen have an obligation to rule the society (but not for their own benefit) - Stability of society paramount - Law and order - Customs and traditions are important o Eg. Rule of the monarchy in Canada - Responsibilities and liberties of citizens - Very limited electorate o Ie only noblemen, middle class, male - Mixed views of economy Modern conservatism Common beliefs: - Universal franchise o Everyone should be allowed to vote - Traditional values should be only changed slowly - Upward mobility replaces permanent strata of society Neo-conservatism - Limited government involvement in the economy - Very limited range of social welfare programs - Increased government protection of mortality - Maintain traditional social values - Distrust in trade unionism Red toryism (in Canada) and wets (in Britain) - Classical responsibilities of better off to look after the poor is expanded to support strong social welfare programs - Emphasis on equality of opportunities - Accepts using the power of the state to regulate economy and promote national economic interests o Ie building pipeline - Accepts basic value of trade unionism *****Stage theory****** EXAM 1. Feudalism a. Landed class b. Peasants Karl Marx – Industrial revolution 2. Capitalism a. Landed class – bourgeoisie  factories b. Working class -Revolution- 3. Socialism a. State b. People  commune the state eventually withers away 4. Communism a. Classless society Classical Communism (Marxism) - Positive view of human nature - Society is product of the economy - All history is one class struggle - Social justice only comes with common ownership of means of production - Revolution is needed o Burgerflipping guy wants more money o Revolution needs to be painful - Period of transition (socialism) with a strong state ******* EXAM o YOU NEED A STATE CALLED SOCIALISM as a transition o You cannot jump from capitalism to communism - Withering away of the state as society becomes more communal and cooperative o State disappears as you live together - Move to: “from each according to their ability, to each according to their needs.” - Final phase in political and social evolution is true condition of communism where no state exists and all live in harmony Modern socialism th - Split in early 20 century between revolutionary socialism ( who remain closer to classical Marxists) and democratic socialists - Mainstream Western left now “social democrats” o Mixed view of human nature o Reject end goal of communism as utopian o Pursue less class-structured society, without absolute equality of condition o Liberty and equality expanded to freedom to and freedom of opportunity  Student loans, scholarships, etc o Reduced emphasis on state ownership of economic means of production, most now accepted “mixed economy” o Highly developed social welfare programs  Pensions o Strongly support workers’ rights and trade unionism Political Culture and Socialization: the Media and Other Mind Shapers Gabriel Almond & Sidney Verba - Political culture - Political trust - Political efficacy - Political alienation - Civic culture - Politics of identity - Political cleavages February 7 2013 Political Culture and Socialization: the Media and Other Mind Shapers Political Culture: - Culture is a broad term and encompasses art, music, recreation, language, religion, etc o Recreation: hockey is in Canada’s culture o Language: words in our culture etc  Concern: how culture plays an impact on government  How do we make decisions with the integration of culture? - Political scientists are concerned with the impact that these cultural elements have upon politics of a state impact of culture can be upon: o Institutional structure for channelling politics o Process of decision making in that structure  Ie. Selective abortion based on gender o The kind of policy issues that are at stake within a society Political culture defined: The collection of the understandings, values, attitudes, and principles of a community or society that relate to its political organization, processes, disputes, and public policies. “Out of a society’s political culture come important beliefs and values that structure the citizen’s attitudes and expectations toward such basic political concepts as legitimacy, power, authority, and obedience.” Political scientists are concerned with: 1. Aggregate effects of political culture upon society 2. But also its effects upon individuals Categories of attitudes and orientations *******EXAMMMM!!!!!******** - Affective: based on emotional reactions, symbolic o Ie. I hate the queen - Cognitive: orientation to a political object based on an individual’s knowledge – real or believed o Based on what you know - Evaluative: based on analysis of facts and feelings o Based on the combination of emotions and knowledge Example: The burning of a nation’s flag - Reactions of anger (affective, emotions) - Question why they would burn it (cognitive) - Evaluate that it’s only a piece of cloth with symbolism on it (evaluative) The stability of a society’s political culture can vary considerably depending on which types of attitudes are prevalent – affective values can be more volatile and intolerant of opposing views. Key Measures of Poltical Culture 1. Political Trust: because government is left to a small group of representatives, the general populace must trust them 2. Political efficacy: the feeling that the individual can have some impact on political decisions that affect them a. HST, voted against it so we go back We can make changes if we feel the system is not reprensenting us Political alienation: - In the absence of trust and efficacy, the political alienation builds, which is unpredictable and can lead to profound changes in the political system. Alienation is also the cultural breeding ground for extremism and revolution. o If trust and efficacy does not exist, it creates political alienation. Political Cleavages - The division of a state’s population into various groups that is produced by deep differences over fundamental values and attitudes. Elements of indentity of potential poltical significance - Gender - Class division: virtually all societies are stratified into levels based on wealth, income, and social status - Religious divisions: even where single nation, as in Northern Ireland o Sikhs and Hindus in india - Ethnicity: some states contains several races, tribes, nations, or language groups State Approaches to Political Cleavages - Efforts to build a single overarching culture o “melting pot”, submerge yourself into the culture - Recognizing and fostering respect for cultural diversity - - Designing institution accommodate major cleavages o Allowed to take citizenship test - Repression of subgroups through violence and/or other coercive measures o Totalitarian Political Socialization - The values of a political culture are passed on and evolve through a process called political socialization – this includes all the ways in which we acquire attitudes, knowledge, and belief about the political system o Agents of political socialization Principal Agents of Political Socialization ***** EXAM!!!***** – read textbook for more detail on these agents of socialization - Family o “Caste System” - Educational institutions o Public vs private schools o Social norms, i.e tolerance of diverse cultures etc, capitalist free enterprise o First name basis w/ teachers = equality & social hierarchy - Mass media o Newspaper, radio, websites, TV, etc o Propaganda - Religious institutions o no official religion in Canada - Peer groups - The workplace o Unionized vs non-unionized - State actors o Police, bureaucrats, legislature o i.e endorsing multiculturalism o selection and promotion of symbols (flags, national anthems) and rituals (public holidays, celebrations) o endorsing patriotism (required for military service) Midterm Section A: 10 MC Q’s (1 pt each) - Ie what is the largest branch of govt --- bureaucracy. Section B: 3 essay type questions, answer one (20 pts) --- 4 pages long, double space. - Power --- (power, coercion, etc) - Sources of authority --- charisma, etc etc 7 of them, explain them. - Ideology --- communsion, conservatism, liberialism. Classical and reforms of it. Question will be only on one of these - Nation state --- nation vs state. self determination. Quebec separation. - Political culture and socialization. --- 7 we talked about, education and mass media most prominent. Responsible for reading from all the chapters. Unit 2 and unit 4 of the tutorial guide most prominent. Designing and Limiting Governments by Constitutions Constitutions are rule books Constitution defined - The body of fundamental laws, rules, and practices that defines the basic structure of government, allocates power among governmental institutions and regulates the relationships between citizens and the state. - Living document Two different systems: 1. Parliamentary System (Canada)-- fusion of power - fusion of power i.e Prime Minister > Cabinet > parliament And outside the circle, the queen (head of state) has the Governor General to represent her 2. Presidential System (USA) Executive… President… Cabinet Legistlature: 1.House of commons Judiciary Functions of Constitutions: - The define the structure of major institutions of government - To divide powers and duties among the various institutions of government - To regulate relations between the citizen and the state - To serve as a political symbol - To specify a procedure for amending the constitution o Can’t be too concrete nor too flexible to change Origins of Constitutions *********EXAM!!!******** - Revolution o Chuck the old const. out and write a new one b/c people want it - Decolonization o Now you have a choice: allowed to write a structure different from British king/queen - Aftermath of war o Americans occupied Japan 1945-1952, Americans rewrote the Japanese constitution  Japanese cannot declare war against another country - Succession o Quebec Constitutional Government - A constitutional government is one wherein the constitution effectively limits the power of the political elite o Limits the power of the govt so the society feels secure and trust them - Thus in a constitutional polity the constitution organises but also restraints Rule of Law ********EXAM******** for long answer!!! - The laws governing a society must emanate from a known body according to set procedures o You need to know where the law comes from and how it’s made  Parliament makes it through debates - The law applies to everyone, including government officials. o Everyone is equal before the law - It must be possible for an individual to discover what the law is o Must have access - The law will be enforced by proper courts o Which is our judicial Constitutions - Written constitutions: specific set of documents (USA, Germany, Canada) - Unwritten constitution: reules based on tradition and conventions (Great Britain) Constitutional Elements - Preamble - is a political manifesto, setting out the goals and priorities of the government o Summary of the country - An organizational chart – delineates whether the political institution are to be federal or unitary, presidential or parliamentary in nature o Structure of the country - An amending clause – for future revision of the constitution. It specifies who is involved, the nature and kinds of amendments allowed and procedure is utilized - o Allowed to edit the constitution - A bill of rights – based on the assumption that individuals need extra protection from their own government, as well as actions of their fellow citizens Confederal, federal, unitary system ********EXAM****** Government lays down which part of the governemnt is for which issue Advantages: - Allows each level of government to check abuses of power by the other - Protects the interests of geographically concentrated minorities - Allows subnational governments to give effect to the preferences of regional populations - Allows for policy experimentation by subnational governments o Alberta has no PST Disadvantages: - May be suited to the interests of geographically dispersed minorities - Intergovernmental conflict often obstructs or delays needed action in areas of overlapping jurisdiction o i.e building coquitlam skytrain - “Province-building” promotes parochialism and weakens national identity o Quebec - Assertiveness of provinces may foster secessionist movements Mechanisms of Consitutional Change - Usages and conventions - Judicial review o Let the judges decide - Sucession o If you feel that you can’t get what you want, separate and create your own constitution Constitutional Conventions - Is a binding rule r
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