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The Nature of Psych.docx

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Simon Fraser University
PSYC 100
Jaime Palmer

The Nature of Psych. - Psychologist study language and how we recognize words. - Psychology: Science study of behavior and the mind. - Behavior: Actions and responses that we can directly observe, whereas the term mind refers to internal states and processes (thoughts and feelings) that cannot be seen directly. - Clinical PSYC: Study and treatment of mental disorders. - COG PSYC study of mental process. (Consciousness, attention, memory, decision-making and problem solving.) - Psycholinguistics: Focuses on the PSYC of language. Biopsychology: Biological underpinnings of behavior. How brain, genes, hormones influences our actions, thoughts and feelings. Developmental PSYC: Examines human physical, psychological and social development across a lifespan. Ex: Emotional world of infants or parenting styles that can affect childhood. Experimental PSYC: Focuses on basic process as learning, sensory systems (vision, hearing), perception and motivational states. Industrial-organizational (I/O) PSYC: Examiners people behaviors in the workplace. Study leadership, teamwork and influences. Personality PSYC: Study of human personality. Seek to identify core personality traits and how different traits relate to one another and influence behaviors. Social PSYC: Examines peoples thoughts, feelings and behavior pertaining to the social world: the world of other people. PSYC (sc of behavioural and mental processes) Biology, Anthropology, Economics, Sociology, Engineering, Computer Sc. and Medicine PSYCs SCIENTIFIC APPROACH p.6 - Science is a process that involves studying behavior. - Empirical evidence is evidence gained through experience and observation. (Manipulating then observing) We collect empirical data by exposing people to intellectual tasks and observing how they perform. Understanding Behaviour: Some Pitfalls of Everyday Approaches - Media provide us with info to understand humans. Mix of our own intuition (knowledge that we all commonly know) and conventional/folk wisdom (our personal beliefs about what makes people tick. - Inaccurate beliefs can provide by all forms of media including us. - We often take mental shortcuts when forming judgments, which sometimes measure up poorly. (Ex: Stereotypes) - We may assume. Many factors in real life operate simultaneously to influence behaviour; we may fail to consider alternative explanations for why behaviour has occurred. - Once our beliefs are established, we often fail to test them further. (Confirmation bias) Using Science to Minimize Everyday Pitfalls p.6-7 - Psychologists usually use statistics to analyze their data. - When Psychologists publish their affair it allows for other psychologists to challenge their theories. (To minimize the risk of confirmation bias) - Theres a grand difference between faith and science. (Religion and what can be proven) - In principal, science ultimately is a self-correcting process. As better or more info is gathered that can help support or change something. THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT BEHAVIOUR p.7 - Critical thinking involves taking an active role in understanding the world around you rather than merely receiving info. To reflect on what the info means, how it fits in with experiences and implications in life and society. To help validate something. - Whats the claim? - Who is making the claim? Credible and trustworthy? - Whats the evidence and how good is it? - Other explanations possible? - What is the most appropriate conclusion? Of astrology and asstrology: Potential costs of uncritical thinking - People uncritically accept many misconceptions that do have concrete harmful consequences. Ex: Buying Baby Einstein to make your baby smart, (Make statements without scientific evidence) therapies, hand readers, oils, and needles. - Pseudoscience a field that incorporates astrology, graphology and rumpology are dressed up to look like science and it attracts believers despite its lack of credible scientific evidence. Psychologys goals p.9 1. Describe how people and other animals behave. 2. Explain and understand the causes of these behaviours. 3. Predict how people and animals will behave under certain conditions. 4. Influence or control behaviour through knowledge and control of its causes to enhance human welfare.If we understand the causes of behaviour and know what the causal factor are present or absent, then we should be able to successfully predict when the behaviour will occur. If you can control the causes, then we can control the behaviour. Psychology as a basic and applied science - Basic research quest of knowledge purely for its own sake; applied research designed to solve specific practical problems. - The goal is to describe how people behave and to identify the factors that influence or cause a particular type of behaviour. In review p.10 - PSYC is the study of behaviour and the mind. (Behaviour refers to the actions and responses that we can observe; the mind refers to internal states and processes like thoughts and feelings, that cannot be seen directly) - Primary goals of PSYC are to describe, explain, predict and influence behaviour and to apply PSYC knowledge to enhance human welfare. - Basic research is the quest for knowledge for its own sake, whereas applied research is to solve practi
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