REASERCH METHODS PART 1
List and describe the steps in the sc. method.
Define the 4 measurements techniques PSYC use and one drawback
What do you think?
1. The higher a male monkey’s testosterone is, the less aggressive he
is likely to be.
2. Younger adults have sex less frequently than older adults.
3. The hotter the weather, less crime against person (such as
muggings) tend to occur.
- 2 Approached to Study PSYC
1. Hindsight (after-the-fact) understanding
Attempting to explain behaviour after it occurs.
Problem: too many possible explanations, which one is the
2. Understanding through prediction, control theory building
Theory building (…)
- Psychologists are Scientists
1. Are precise.
2. Are sceptical.
3. Rely on empirical evidence.
4. Willing to make risky predictions.
5. Open and transparent.
Psychological research – Scientific Method
5. Build bodywork
- Step 1: Identify a question that interests you.
- Step 2: Form a hypothesis. Specific prediction about some
- Step 3: Collect data.
- Step 4: Draw tentative conclusions.
- Step 5: Build a body of knowledge. Ask further questions, conduct
more research, develop and test theories (a set of formal statements
that explains how and why certain events are related to one another;
theories are broader than hypotheses.)
Variables (characteristic that can vary)
- Psychologist study variables and the relationship between them. - A variable is any characteristic or factor that varies.
- Must be defined.
In terms of specific procedures used to produce or measure it.
- Operational definitions translate abstract concepts into something
observable and measurable.
Ex: Exam Stress.
Measurement Techniques: Self-report measures: ask people to tell
us about their own knowledge, experience, attitude, feelings or
- Social desirability bias: the tendency to respond in a socially
acceptable manner rather than according to how one truly feels or
- Alternative is to get reports from others.