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Simon Fraser University
PSYC 100
Jaime Palmer

Neurons - Concentration of sodium ions outside the neuron and the negative protein ions inside contribute to a resting potential. - If the neuron is sufficient stimulated, sodium channels open and sodium ions flood into the axon. Not that the potassium channels are stilld closed. - Sodium channels that were open in (b) have now closed and potassium channels behind them are open, allowing potassium ions to exist and restoring the resting potential at the point. Sodium channels are opening at the next point as the action potential moves down the axon. - Action potential (potassium ions flow out) - Gaps between axons: gap junctions. - Milan: To insolate the axons to speed up the flow throughout the axon. - All or nothing law: Sufficient stimulation or nothing. - Function of an action potential: Communication between neurones. - Down axons, to axon terminals. - Synaptic space/cleft: space - Neurotransmitters: - Receptor molecules: Receive the neurotransmissions. - Enzymes: degrade the non-fitting molecules. - Sacs (syntactical vesicles): store neurotransmitters. Move towards membrane, fuse then release. - SSRI: Selective Serotonin Retake Inhibiter - Our brain is made up of millions of neurones: Communication of neurones = how our brain works. The nervous system - Central nervous system: brain spinal cord - Peripheral nervous system: nerves Enables us to sense events in and out of the body. (input) Enables us to responds to events with muscles and glands. (output) Sensory nerves (skin, muscles…) give info to the brain. Motor nerves – muscles (ex) respond. Somatic - sensory, sends messages from sensory organs to brain, sends messages from CNS to muscles (voluntary movements) Autonomic – Regulates internal environment, controls involuntary functions, two subdivisions a) sympathetic INSTINCT (dilates pupils, relaxes bronchi, accelerates, strengthens heart beat, inhibits activity, contracts vessels, b) parasympathetic CALM DOWN (contracts pupils, constricts bronchi, slows heart best, stimulates activity, dilates vessels) Central Nervous system - Spinal cord: conducts spinal reflects (do not require brain). Automatic response. No conscious input but it can involve input of the brain. - Brain: Who you are, uses a lot of energy. How to study the brain 1. Destruction and stimulation Patients with brain damage. Lesion studies (destroy part of the brain to study it) Chemical stimulation (infuse a needle) Electrical stimulation (electrically stimulating parts of the brain to understand where the stimulation is coming from) 2. Electrical and magnetic detection. (brain waves) Electrodes measure neuronal activity Electroencephalography (EEG) Brain waves – activity of neurones Measures activity of large groups of neurons “Tells us when it‟s happening, but not what.” Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) Virtual lesion method Stimulate brain region of interest “Not very precise.” Because you stimulate a group of neurones and not a specific one.
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