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History of PSYC.docx

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PSYC 100
Jaime Palmer

History of PSYC - Began with PHIL. - Early belief in mind-body dualism. (Mind and body are separate) Renee Descartes (1596-1650) - Mind and body interact through the pineal gland. - Still believer that the mind was separate from the body. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) - Believed in materialism. - Advocated monoism. John Locke (1632-1704) - British Empiricism. The influences of PHYS - Linked the brain with behavior - 1800’s - PSYC Wilheim Wundt (1832-1920) - Structuralism - Definition: The elemental aspect of thing. - Using introspection. Concentrate on basic shapes and study emotions. Functionalism - Definition: Why we have these functions? Ex: Why we enjoy apples? What’s the function? - Leader was William James (1842-1910) Structuralism vs Functionalism - S study the most basic elements, components, pieces of the mind. (study elements) - F study the purpose or reason for having the mind. (study functions) SUMMARY - PSYC’s root is in PHIL and PHYS. - Early PSYC believed in Structuralism and Functionalism. Perspective in PSYC List and describe the 6 theoretical perspectives in PSYC. Compare and contract them. Provide an example of the research interest and typical methods used to study in each of the perspectives in PSYC. 6 Theoretical Perspectives 1. Psychodynamic 2. Behaviorist 3. Humanist 4. Cog 5. Sociocultural 6. Biological/Evolutionary 1. Psychodynamic - Originated with Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) - Obscure neurologist. Therapy for many different people who suffered different conditions. - None of which was known by. - Thought that unconscious issues must cause the conditions. He developed psychoanalysis. They talk; he underlines. - “(…) Searched for the causes of behaviour within the inner workings of our personality (our unique patterns of traits, emotions and motives) - Analysis of internal and primarily unconscious psychological forces. - Humans have drives to things like sex or power. Over time we learn to fear those things so that we repress them in every day life. Defense mechanisms: Psychological techniques that help us cope with anxiety and the pain of traumatic experiences. (Ex: repression) - Critics said: Too much emphasis on childhood sexuality Theory is impossible to test. But thousands of studies have been done using his approach. - Modern PSYC Theory: Focuses on early family relationships, other social factors, and sense of self - Object relation’s theories: Focus on how early experiences with caregivers shapes our views of ourselves and others. - Largely the result of the continuous conflict between internal impulses and defenses. 2. Behavioural Perspective - A focus on the role of the external environment in governing our actions…learning is the key to understanding how experiences shape behaviour. - John B. Watson (1913) – Emphasizes environmental control of behaviour through learning. Believed that PSYC should be concerned w/ observable behaviour. He can control the outcome of any individual. (Nurture) - B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) Did not deny that we have thoughts and feelings. Believed that all behaviour was the result of the outside world. Studied punishment and reward in rats and pigeons. - PSYC should focus on observable stimuli and responses. - Challenged psychodynamic views about the causes of psychological disorders. - Let to highly effective treatments for some - Interest waned in the 70’s - Bthic laws of learning were one of the most important things in the 20 C. 3. COGS Behaviourism - Albert Bandura (1969-2002) - Mental processes CAN be studied
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