History of PSYC
- Began with PHIL.
- Early belief in mind-body dualism. (Mind and body are separate)
Renee Descartes (1596-1650)
- Mind and body interact through the pineal gland.
- Still believer that the mind was separate from the body.
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
- Believed in materialism.
- Advocated monoism.
John Locke (1632-1704)
- British Empiricism.
The influences of PHYS
- Linked the brain with behavior
- 1800’s - PSYC
Wilheim Wundt (1832-1920)
- Definition: The elemental aspect of thing.
- Using introspection. Concentrate on basic shapes and study
- Definition: Why we have these functions? Ex: Why we enjoy apples?
What’s the function?
- Leader was William James (1842-1910)
Structuralism vs Functionalism
- S study the most basic elements, components, pieces of the mind.
- F study the purpose or reason for having the mind. (study functions)
- PSYC’s root is in PHIL and PHYS.
- Early PSYC believed in Structuralism and Functionalism. Perspective in PSYC
List and describe the 6 theoretical perspectives in PSYC.
Compare and contract them.
Provide an example of the research interest and typical methods used
to study in each of the perspectives in PSYC.
6 Theoretical Perspectives
- Originated with Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
- Obscure neurologist. Therapy for many different people who suffered
- None of which was known by.
- Thought that unconscious issues must cause the conditions.
He developed psychoanalysis. They talk; he underlines.
- “(…) Searched for the causes of behaviour within the inner workings
of our personality (our unique patterns of traits, emotions and
- Analysis of internal and primarily unconscious psychological forces.
- Humans have drives to things like sex or power. Over time we learn
to fear those things so that we repress them in every day life.
Defense mechanisms: Psychological techniques that help us cope
with anxiety and the pain of traumatic experiences. (Ex: repression)
- Critics said:
Too much emphasis on childhood sexuality
Theory is impossible to test.
But thousands of studies have been done using his approach.
- Modern PSYC Theory: Focuses on early family relationships, other
social factors, and sense of self
- Object relation’s theories: Focus on how early experiences with
caregivers shapes our views of ourselves and others.
- Largely the result of the continuous conflict between internal
impulses and defenses.
2. Behavioural Perspective - A focus on the role of the external environment in governing our
actions…learning is the key to understanding how experiences shape
- John B. Watson (1913) – Emphasizes environmental control of
behaviour through learning.
Believed that PSYC should be concerned w/ observable
He can control the outcome of any individual. (Nurture)
- B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Did not deny that we have thoughts and feelings.
Believed that all behaviour was the result of the outside world.
Studied punishment and reward in rats and pigeons.
- PSYC should focus on observable stimuli and responses.
- Challenged psychodynamic views about the causes of psychological
- Let to highly effective treatments for some
- Interest waned in the 70’s
- Bthic laws of learning were one of the most important things in the
3. COGS Behaviourism
- Albert Bandura (1969-2002)
- Mental processes CAN be studied