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Sensations come first then perception.docx

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Simon Fraser University
PSYC 100
Jaime Palmer

Sensations come first then perception. Sensations vs. perception - Sensation: stimulus detection. - From environment stimuli -> nerve impulses. - Perception: making of what the senses tell us. - Giving meaning to the sensory information. - Sensory receptors (receive input) -> transduction -> analysis of stimulus features -> reconstruction into neural representation -> comparison with others -> recognition and interpretation. Stimulus detection - Absolute threshold: lowest level of detection 50% of the time. - Interspecies variation. - Lower absolute threshold (more sensitive); higher absolute threshold (less sensitive) - Lots of individual variation in detection Different decision criterion. Other factors? Signal detection theory. To ignore, or not to ignore - Difference threshold. Just noticeable difference. Weber’s law. Proportional between size of the stimuli. - Sensory adaptation: picking information relevant to remember. Survival advantage. Most of the time good. Visual system - Hue changes - Saturation changes - Brightness changes How we see - Light reflects and object, waves come into your eye, through Pupil, to the Retina - Retina: contains the rods and cones. The Fovea contains only cones. Blind spot where no information is received. - Rods and cones: neurones that change the waves. - Back of eye, photoreceptor, bipolar ganglion, light waves. - How many? Rods 120-125 million; Cones 7-8 million Dark adaptations - Photo receptors - Cones can renew their intensity quicker than rods. Feature detectors - Selectively fire - Respond to specific characteristics of visual stimuli - Discovered by Hubel & Wiesel. Auditory System: What we hear - Loudness: Intensity of wave’s physical pressure. - Measured in decibels (dB) - Pitch: frequence of the sound wave. - How rapidly the air vibrates. - Number of sound waves (cycles) per second - Measured in Hertz (Hz) How we hear Ear drum -> oval window -> cochlea -> basilar and tectorial membrane -> hair cells in organ of corti -> neurotransmitters to auditory nerve Hearing loss - Conduction deafness – mechanical issues - Nerve deafness – receptor or auditory nerve issues - Other causes? What we taste - (…) - - - - Taste Tongue has receptors for: taste, touch temperature. - 500 – 10 000 buds. - Genetic diffs in taste. - Also culture and learning. - Takes place in the pores of your tongue. - Sweet and fatty – high calorie (good) - Bitter – poisonous (bad) - Genetic differences in taste responses. - Supertasters (25% of Americans) Broccoli, caffeine and saccharin bitter, high sensitivity to sweet salty and spicy. - Have more taste buds. Olfactory system - Olfactory receptors are like neurotransmitter binding sites on neurons - Send messages to the olfactory bulb (forebrain) - Hot new research area – pheromones! Sexual attraction Long-term
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