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PSYC 100
Jaime Palmer

Genes, environment and behaviour - Genotype: Specific genetic makeup. - Phenotype: individual’s observable characteristics. - Alleles: alternate forms of a gene that produce different characteristics. Ex: free (recessive) or attached earlobes (dominant).1 Behaviour genetics - …study how heredity and environmental factors influence psychological factors. - twins have a genetic heredity of 1; siblings .5% - Family studies: compare family members. Study likelihood. - Adoption studies: compare adopted children to adoptive parents and biological parents. - Twin studies: compare concordance rates for identical and fraternal twins. - Monozygotic twins: 1 egg & 1 sperm. Zygote separate. Indentical chromosomes. - Dizygotic twins: 2 eggs & 2 sperm. - IQ is quite heritable. (passed on) - Heritability: Validation. Genetic similarity - Genotype, Shared environment & unshared environment = group variation on a psychological trait. Heritability - Estimates the proportion of trait variance due to genetic variance within a group. - Maximum value = 1.00 (100% of the variance) - Rules: 1. Applies only to a particular group in a particular environment. (Consider characteristics) Environment vs genes - Every trait has a reaction range - Genetic traits have a range of possible phenotypes. - There are individual differences in reaction ranges. - Shared/unshared environments lead to differences in genetic tendencies. - Genetic characteristics influence the environmental factors that children are exposed to. - Genetic characteristics have an evocative influence. Characteristics influence the responses from others. Genetics as a research tool 1. Knockout procedure - Eliminate function of a specific gene Ex: Leptin gene and obesity. One mouse is obese after they knocked out the gene. 2. Knock-in procedure - New gene of interest is inserted into animal. Ex: Huntington’s disease. Motor abilities. 3. Linkage studies - Take advantage of genes lying close together. - Look for families with similar gene patterns. Evolutionary PSYC - Evolution: Change over time in the frequency of occurrence of genes in an inter-breeding population. - Genes influence behaviour.
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