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PSYC100 chapter11.doc

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Simon Fraser University
PSYC 100
Natasha Ghosh

CHAPTER 11 Motivation and EmotionMotivation is a process that influences the direction persistence and vigour of goaldirected behaviour INSTINCT THEORY AND EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGYThe adaptive significance of behaviour is a key to understanding motivation eg Why are we such social creatures Presumably affiliation produced survival advantagessuch as shared resources and protection against predatorsHOMEOSTASIS AND DRIVE THEORYBodys biological systems are delicately balanced to ensure survival eg When you are cold your body generates warmth by shiveringHomeostasis is a state of balance that the body strives to maintainMaintaining homeostasis requires a sensory mechanism for detecting changes in the internal environment a response system that can restore equilibrium and a control centre that receives information from the sensors and activates the response system The control centre functions like an airconditioning unit Homeostatic regulation also can involve learned behaviours eg When were hot we not only sweat but also may seek a shady place or deliciously cool drinkDrive theory is however less influentialeg People often behave in ways that seem to increase states of arousal as when people skip meals to diet or flock to tensiongenerating horror moviesINCENTIVE AND EXPECTANCY THEORIESIncentive theories focus attention on external stimuli that motivate behaviour Modern incentive theory emphasizes the pull of external stimuli and how stimuli with high incentive value can motivate behaviourAn incentive theory of drug use argues that seeking and administering a drug is motivated by the positive incentive value of the drugs effect eg inject heroin because the drug makes them feel good not because of a biological heroin drive or a desire to escape withdrawalExpectancyvalue theory or simply expectancy theory proposes that goaldirected behaviour is jointly determined by two factors the strength of the persons expectation that particular behaviours will lead to a goal and the value the individual places on that goaloften called incentive valueMotivationexpectancyincentive value eg James works hard because he believes that the more you study the greater the probability of getting an A and he values an A highly Lenora also believes that studying hard will lead to an A but getting an A holds little value for her in this course Extrinsic motivation performing an activity to obtain an external reward or avoid punishmenteg Students who read their textbooks only because they want to get good gradesIntrinsic motivation performing an activity for its own sakebecause you find it enjoyable or stimulating eg Students who read their textbooks because they find them interesting and want to learn moreFrom intrinstic to extrinstic would reduce pleasure eg A student who for example makes jewellery as a hobby ie she simply enjoys the activity and then begins to sell the jewellery will commonly report a marked decrease in the intrinsic pleasure of the activityPSYCHODYNAMIC AND HUMANISTIC THEORIESThe psychodynamic and humanistic perspectives view motivation as apersonality development and functioningFreuds psychoanalytic theory highlighted the motivational underworld Hidden aggressive impulses may fuel ones career as a trial attorney businessperson or athleteFreuds dualinstinct model
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