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Lecture 5


2 Pages

Course Code
PSYC 100
Sherri Atwood

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1 Genetics Genotype – your heredity, genetic instructions, your genetic makeup. • Humans share a genomic sequence but your specific genes varies from other individuals • You have a specific genotype that can be viewed by various means ((eg. genotype assay, DNA sequencing)) • Not all organisms with same genotype look and act the same because genotype is shaped by environmental and developmental conditions (genes “turn off and on,” they work in groups) Phenotype – your observable characteristics or traits. Your biochemical properties, your development, your behaviour, and the products of your behaviour ((eg. need to socially interact)) • Traits or characteristics that can be made observable, even by technical procedure ◦ Physical traits ◦ Psychological traits For each genotype, a range of phenotypes can be expressed given environment and developmental factors Some organisms display well◦ defined behaviour that is genetically programmed, but many aspects of phenotype (expression) are not Epigenetic Inheritance – all biological inheritance mechanisms that do not change the DNA sequence of the genome Epigenetics – on top of genes; the way environment affects genes (NOT DNA) • Learning from experience can change the behaviour of genes • Genes respond to their environment; genes may dictate pathways for development but do not determine them Genes most often work in groups rather than singly • A single gene that codes for a single discernable phenotype is rare Polygenic Transmission – few characteristics are determined by one pair of genes • Genes can combine their influence to create a phenotype trait
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