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PSYC 100
Sherri Atwood

PSYC100 WEEK9 CHAPTER 8(1): MEMORY I Memory A. What is Memory 1. Learning that has persisted over time 2. Information that has been stored over time 3. Information that can be retrieved over time 4. Memory is a reconstructive process. B. Memory is a Reconstructive Process 1. Is capacity to retain and retrieve information? 2. Is a reconstruction of things that have already occurred? Without memory we would need round the clock care. It provides us with 3. our identities. C. What are memories 1. Complex cluster of information 2. Reconstruct image of a person a) Recall aspects of appearance b) Voice c) Manner d) Context 3. Different pieces of information are processed separately and stored in different locations distributed across areas of the brain. 4. All these sites then participate in the representation of the event or concepts as a whole. 5. Hippocampus binds diverse aspects of a memory at time of formation so even though stored in different sites the memory is retrieved in one coherent entity. D. The Biology of Memory: The Case of HM 1. Had most of his hippocampus and all of his amygdala removed. 2. He cannot put content of working memory into long term memory. 3. Showed the hippocampus makes short-term memories into long term ones. 4. Although the hippocampus is responsible for memory different kinds of memory are dependent on different parts of the brain. E. HM continued 1. HM could practice a task (star), not recall he had ever done so, and then do the task very well but not know why. 2. He could remember (unconsciously) a motor skill but not a fact or event. 3. This revealed there were different kinds of memory dependent on different parts of the brain. 4. HM has motor memory, some spatial memory, some long term memory, but no declarative memory and episodic memory. 5. Supports this dual track mind or processing (unconscious and conscious processing). F. The Capacity of Memory 1. Short-Term memory a) Limited in capacity – Seven bits of information can be stored +/- 2 (Miller, 1956). b) Recall is better for random digits (phone numbers) than for random letters c) Recall is better for random digits (phone numbers) than for random letters d) Recall is slightly better for what we hear than for what we see e) Without rehearsal, most people can retain about 4 information chunks in their short term memory 2. Long-Term memory a) Unlimited capacity, but not as accurate as sensory memory or short- term memory b) Organizes and stores information c) Information not stored in precise locations d) Duration of memory storage thought by some to be permanent II Memory As Information Processing 1. Encoding: input from the environment gets encoded into neural/electrical code. 2. Storage: Retaining information in either working or long term memory 3. Retrieval: Getting information back out of memory. 4. Overview: Memory Processes a) Encoding: Getting information into memory b) Storage: Retaining information in memory c) Retrieval: Recalling or using previously encoded and stored information A. A Three-Component Model  Cognitive processes involve computer metaphor: encoding, storing, and retrieving information  We get information into the brain (encode), retain that information (store it) and pull it out later (retrieve it)  Three component or 3-component models says there are 3 components to memory: sensory, short term or working memory, and long term memory. 1. Sensory Memory a) Sensory input from the environment is recorded as fleeting sensory memory. b) Information is processed in short-term memory. c) Information is encoded into long-term memory for later retrieval. d) The Briefest Form of Memory Storage: Sensory Memory, Sensory Registrar  Visual: Iconic Memory  Auditory: Echoic Memory (Duration: a few seconds)  The immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system.  Entryway to STM or LTM.  ½ sec. for iconic and 2 sec. for echoic in highly accurate form until we decide if it’s worth recalling—if not deleted. 2. Short-Term/Working Memory a) Memory codes  Once information leaves sensory memory it must be represented by a code to be retained in STM and then LTM.  Codes take several forms: By sound (phonological encoding by saying words to yourself), by meaning (semantic encoding), or by visual encoding (a mental picture that retains that image).  Codes do not have to conform to original stimulus—you read words, but likely do not store images of the letters; rather, you see/read words and use semantic encoding because you remember what the word means. b) Capacity and duration Capacity  A limited-capacity memory system involved in the retention of information for brief periods  Info. needs to be encoded (e.g., visual encoding into mental images)  Also used to hold information retrieved from LTM for temporary use (referred to as working memory)  Working memory: STM + the mental processes that control retrieval of information from LTM & lets you interpret information appropriately for given tasks. Duration (Extending memory duration)  Maintenance Rehearsal: ▪ We can extend info. by rehearsing/repeating it (say it out loud). ▪ Memorize information to keep information available long enough to get through the test and then forget most of it.  Elaborative Rehearsal: ▪ Focus on meaning or relate information to other things you already know. ▪ Focus on the meaning of content, understanding the content. ▪ Organizing information and thinking about how it applies to your own life and related it to concepts and examples you already know illustrate elaboration. ▪ Elaborative rehearsal is deeper kind of processing then maintenance and more effective at transferring information into LTM. ▪ Impose order on set of stimuli—serves as a cue to help trigger memory. ▪ You have built more connections so you have more cues when trying to recall. c) Putting short-term memory “to work”  STM is now seen more as working memory: A mental workspace that actively and simultaneously processes different types of information and supports other cognitive functions like problem-solving, planning, and interacts with LTM.  Active processing of information  Associates new and old information  Solves problems  Busy librarian—categorizing, cross-referencing material. 3. Long-Term Memory a) LTM is the memory system involved in long-term storage of information (the 3 box of 3 component ). b) Durable memories: Can last a life-time; Storage unlimited. c) How is information organized?  Semantic categories: A larger grouping into which items similar in some characteristics can be placed (e.g., chair belongs to the category furniture)  Phonetic/visual categories: Organize by the way things look or the way the words sound.  Relevance and familiarity: Organize by how familiar things are. III Encoding: Entering Information A. Effortful and Automatic Progressing 1. Automatic encoding a) Information about frequency, spatial location, sequence, and timing are encoded automatically. b) You recall where you sit in class. c) Without intention, minimal attention, effortless, accurate. d) Sometimes you encode what you don’t want: You can recall where the diagram was in your textbook but not the information. e) This is ‘depth of processing’—info. automatically sent to LTM but you don’t need it. 2. Effortful encoding a) Encoding that is initiated intentionally and requires conscious effort. b) Names, phone numbers, passwords, test content requires rehearsing, lists, notes. c) To retain information may have to select main parts, label concepts, or make associations with what you already know. B. Levels of Processing: When deeper in better 1. Semantic Encoding (Deep Processing) C. Exposure and Rehearsal D. Organization and Imagery 1. Hierarchies and Chunking 2. Mnemonic Devices (Other ways of extending STM memory) a) Hierarchies and chunking represent two types of effortful encoding. b) These are mnemonic devices. c) An acronyms is a mnemonic device where one or more letters (usually the first letter) from each piece of information you wish to remember makes a word For example, many students learn the acronyms HOMES and ROY G. BIV to help remember the names of the five Great Lakes of North America (Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior) d) Memory aid that uses vivid imagery 3. Visual Imagery E. How Prior Knowledge Shapes Encoding IV Storage: Retaining Information A. Memory as a Network 1. Associative Networks A network of associated ideas and concepts. a) When people think about a concept, such as “fire engine,” there is a spreading activation
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