PSYC 100 Lecture 8: Learning and Conditioning

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Wednesday, March 23, 2016
LEARNING + CONDITIONING!
PSYC100
Exam:!
- 100 MC!
- No long answer!
- STUDY HARD -- it's gonna be hard!
- No eye-blinking, no Ratnes!
!
Types of Learning!
- Classical conditioning: learning to link 2 stimuli in way that helps anticipate event
which we have a reaction!
!i. Watson and Little Albert!
- Operant conditioning: changing behaviour choices in response to consequences !
!i. Skinner and his rats!
- Cognitive learning: acquiring new behaviours and info thru observation and info,
rather than by direct experience!
- Social learning: observation... others put behaviours together!
!
What is Learning?!
- ...experience produces relatively enduring change in behaviour or capabilities!
- Habituation: simplest form of learning... occurs in CNS. Ff there is a reason to be
aware of sensation a behaviour will be produced... allows animal to anticipate and act
BEFORE the event (reflexive response)!
!i. Sensory adaptation ---> similar to habituation ---> "you get use to it"!
!ii. Sensory adaptation happens in NEURONS... after a while they stop firing cos !
!you get used to it (sensory neuron level)!
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Wednesday, March 23, 2016
!iii. Habituation takes place in CNS level ---> eventually you anticipate something !
!that's been done to you over and over again (ie. Little Albert anticipated the white
!!!!!!!
!furries to make a loud "bang")!
!!a) If you think about a certain event that caused discomfort, you can re-!
!!experience those emotions related to the event!
- Sensory adaptation: diff. from habituation!
- Sensitization: increase in strength of a response to a repeated stimulus... w/ repeated
presentation of loud tone the startle response INCREASES in intensity!
!i. ex. get a shock and if you get second one of same intensity you jump back !
!MORE and pull hand back MORE quickly... each shock = stronger intensity of !
!response!
!
Classical and Operant Conditioning!
- Classical c.: occurs when 2 STIMULI become ASSOCIATED w/ one another...
formerly neutral stimulus evokes a reflexive (not goal directed) response that is naturally
evoked by stimulus!
!i. simple form of learning!
- Operant c.: associate responses w/ specific CONSEQUENCES... smiling at others
produces friendly greeting; both CC and OC are called associative learning!
!i. reason for punishment (children)!
- Ivan Pavlov (dogs), John B. Watson (Little Albert), B. F. Skinner (rats)... experimented
thru observing behaviour!
- behaviourism: objective science, studies behaviours thru !
!
Ivan Pavlov!
- studied digestive system!
- discovered classical conditioning thru his work on salivation w/ dogs!
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Wednesday, March 23, 2016
- dogs had natural instinct to salivate at food... maybe dogs can be manipulated to
salivate to objects!!
- the development of cc!
!i. unconditional stimulus > unconditional response > conditioned stimulus > !
!conditioned response!
!!*a) us: something that reliably produces naturally occuring reaction in an !
!!organism (food; dogs naturally salivate to food)!
!!*b) ur: reflexive reaction that is reliably produced by unconditional stim. !
!!(salivation)!
!!*c) cs: stimulus that is initially neutral and produces no reliable ! !
!!response in an organism (bell)!
!!*d) cr: reaction that resembles an unconditioned response but is produced
!!!!!!!!!
!!by conditioned stimulus (salivation)!
!ii. classical c.: process which previously neutral stimulus acquires capacity to !
!elicit a response thru association w/ a unconditional stim.!
!iii. acquisition phase: WHEN CS AND US ARE PAIRED TOGETHER... initial !
!learning of stimulus-response relationship (pairing neutral stimulus (bell) and !
!linking it to unconditional stimulus (food) so bell is linked to food)... as the neutral !
!stim. and us are paired more, the cr becomes stronger; the dogs then salivate !
!more often and consistently (TIMING IS KEY)!
!!a) the pairing (of food and bell) is the key point!
!!b) before conditioning: bell = no response; acquisition phase: bell (ns) + !
!!food (us) = salivation!
!!!1. NEUTRAL STIMULUS (bell) THEN BECOMES CS!
- extinction: gradual elimination of learned response that occurs when us is no longer
presented (happens quite quickly)... diminished cr when us no longer follows cs!
- second/higher order conditioning: conditioning where us is a stimulus that acquired
its ability to produce learning from an earlier procedure in which is was used as a cs!
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