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Frontiers CH1.pdf

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Simon Fraser University
PSYC 100
A.George Alder

Chapter One The Nature of Psychology Psychology is the scientific study of behaviour and the mind o Behaviour refers to actions and responses that we can directly observe. o Mind refers to internal states and processes such as thoughts and feelings o Clinic al Psychology; The study and treatment of mental disorders Cognitive Psychology; The study of mental processes, especially from a model that views the mind as an information processor (Consciousness, attention, memory, and problem solving) Psycholinguistic s; The psychology of language Different Types of Psychology Biopsychology; focuses on the biological pinnings of behaviour o Brain processes, genes, and hormones influence our actions, thoughts, and feelings Developmental; examines human physical, psychological, and social development across the lifespan. o Parenting styles psychologically affect children or how out mental abilities change during adolescence and adulthood Experimental; focuses on such basic processes as learning, sensory systems, perception, and motivational stats o Involves Laboratory experiments, often with nonhuman animals Industrial -Organized (I/O); examines peoples behaviour in the work place o Leadership, teamwork, and factors that influence employees job satisfaction, work motivation, and performance. Personality; focuses on the study of the human personality o Identify core personality traits and how different traits relate to one another and influence behaviour Social; examines peoples thoughts, feelings, and behaviour pertaining to the social world: the world of other people o How people influence one another, behave in groups, ad form impressions and attitudes Major Specialty Areas within Psychology Specialty Major Focus Animalbehaviour Study of nonhuman species in natural or laboratory environments; includes (comparative) genetics, brain processes, social behaviour, evolutionary processes Behavioural neuroscience Examination of brain and hormonal processes that underlie behaviour; behaviour genetics and evolutionary psychology are sometimes grouped under behavioural neuroscience Clinical Diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders; research on causes of disorders and treatment effectiveness Cognitive Study of mental processes such as memory, problem solving, planning, consciousness, and language (psycholinguistics) Counselling Consultation with clients on issues of personal adjustment; vocational and career planning; interest and aptitude testing Cultural/Cross-cultural Study of cultural transmission, psychological similarities and differences among people from different culturesDevelopmental Study of physical, mental, emotional, and social development across the entire lifespan Educational Study of psychological aspects of the educational process; curriculum and instructional research; teacher training Experimental Research (typically laboratory experiments, often with nonhumans) on basic processes such as learning, perception, and motivation Industrial/Organizational Examination of behaviour in work settings; study of factors related to employee morale and performance; development of tests to select job applicants; development of machines and tasks to fit human capabilities Personality Study of individual differences in personality and their effects on behaviour; development of personality tests Quantitative Measurement issues and data analysis; development of mathematical models of behaviour Social Examination of how the social environmentthe presence of other people influen
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