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PSYCH 102-psychotherapy.doc

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PSYC 102
Catherine Wilson

Psychotherapy October-23-12 2:33 PM • Research suggests that woman tend to seek therapy more than men o Women express their feelings more because of gender norms where it isn't acceptable for men to seek help with their emotions o Women share their feelings more than men o Statistical differences-anxiety disorders are commonly seen in women • Differences in Age o People in middle age seek more therapy, people who are 30-45 • People with insurance seek more treatment than people who are not insured • Higher educated people seek treatment o They have more information about treatments and could be self- diagnosing themselves o Higher education mean they may be in a highly stressful job which can trigger more stress o More formal info supplies you with a job that may give you accessible insurance Type of Disorder • Majority of people with schizophrenia seek treatment because this disorder causes the most impairment to functioning Psychotherapy • Therapists o Clinical • See more of the emotional issues o Counselling • See day to day issues/ marital issues • Psychologists cannot prescribe medication • Psychiatrist o Allowed to prescribe medication. Can use drug therapy o Deal with more serious problems • Others o Doctors don’t have as much specialization with these disorders Psychodynamic therapies • Also referred to as insight therapies • Psychoanalysis o Freud-role of unconscious conflict, repressed childhood conflicts o This insight therapy is used to resolve the unconscious issues and resolving psychological disorders that come with it • Psychoanalysis o Free association- express their thoughts • Where the patient lies on a couch and (therapist sits behind patient so they don’t see the emotions expressed by therapists and will not be influenced in any way) and says whatever is on their mind. Relative conflict will be revealed o Dream analysis • The most direct way to access unconsciousness • Interpretation plays a role in this technique- therapist interprets the inner thoughts and behaviours of the patient • In Freuds psychoanalysis, everything was relation to sex o Resistance - therapist is looking for evidence that a patient is resisting or avoiding issues • Therapists task is to resolve issue that has resulted in this resistance o Transference • The patients comes to hate or love the therapist as they feel towards their spouse or other important person in their life • Major disadvantage to psychoanalysis is that it can last a very long time (may last 5 years of therapy or more) • Modern psychodynamic therapy o Use importance of insight but more focused on current issues with the patient o Acceleration of pace and is not as intensive as psychoanalysis(only 1-2 sessions a week as opposed to 5 times for psychoanalysis) o May use face to face therapy than having therapist sit behind the patient o Less importance or focus on sex and aggression o Less focus on childhood but more focus on what is happening now and what can be changed now Client-Centered Therapy • Humanistic Approach o Try to promote and maximize personal growth for the person o Emphasized that therapists must create a supportive environment with client • Treat people as clients rather than patients, more of interaction between therapist and client rather than having this hierarchy of the therapist at top and patient at bottom • Therapist trying to foster a growth on the client. Client taking a active role in the behaviour change • Major cause of this is incongruence between self concept and actual experience • Therapeutic climate o Genuineness- therapist must appear spontaneous o Unconditional positive regard - complete non-judgemental thoughts o Empathy-must provide accurate empathy for the client, active listening • Lets the client lead the explanation of the problem by the therapist asking client questions Therapist demonstrates active listening by nodding etc • Gestalt Therapy (humanistic Approach) • Fritz believed that a healthy persons current needs can be perceived clearly and once old needs resolved, it fades into the background Goal of gestalt : move the client toward self-acceptance and to bring • problems forward • Process is shorter and quicker than client centered approach • Role playing- designed to help client achieve self awareness, client acts out roles the therapist asks them to do (carrying out a conversation back and forth by taking on the view of the other person) • Problems with this approach: adopted a anti-scientific stance, unclear to how successful this approach was Cognitive therapies • Assume that behaviours and emotions are produced by faulty thought process o Approach attempts to analyze thought process and restructure thought process o Problem solving and action oriented approach • Rational emotive therapy o Ellis thought that catastrophic thinking was the main issue with their problem o ABCD model • Activating event -getting a bad grade • Belief (plays a major role in the consequences • Consequence -resulting in depression • D component Becks Cognitive Theory • Becks negative cognitive triad • goal of this theory: to change the way the client is thinking and to make them realize that the thoughts is causing this maladaptive reaction. Goal is to make the client see a realistic view of the future by challenging their internal belief • Focus of this theory: To Identify the problematic cognitions Behavioural Therapies • In this approach, they try to translate vague complaints into specific concrete goals ( I really hate crowds but I will go shopping at the mall right before Christmas) Systematic Desensitization • Combines the imagining and experien
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