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PSYC 102
Catherine Wilson

Ch 1:Theoretical Perspectives October-09-12 11:56 AM “Scientific Study” • Empirical evidence—evidence through experience • Critical thinking—active role in learning and understanding things around the world. Not taking everything at face value. Questioning info and its source • Systematic research methods—developing research designs to test a hypothesis. Perspectives on behaviour Psychodynamic –the 1st perspective on behaviour; unconscious processes Comes from sigmoid and freud • • Emphasis on the unconscious mind • It suggests that all behaviour has an unconscious cause • An example of psychodynamic slip of the tongue: instead of saying mom you’re the best, saying mom you’re the beast Behaviourism—Another perspective on behaviour; learned behaviour • Suggests if , you can control the environment, you can control the behaviour Cognitive behaviourism—the link between behaviour and cognitive perspective Humanistic Perspective –striving to achieve • Takes the optimistic and positive view of human nature • People do have freedom, conscious choices, they have reasons for what they do Cognitive perspective – thought processes • Focuses on mental function and reasoning • Belief formation • How we process, store, retrieve and use information Sociocultural perspective –social forces, culture • How behaviour and thinking can vary across cultures • Has some similarity to behaviourism but is a broader perspective that focuses on cultural and societal experiences Biological perspective –genes, brain processes • Focuses on the physical side of human nature • The brain structures and function, biochemical processes and genetic factors • How the body and brain creates emotions and experience Pasted from Ch 13: Behaviour in a Social context October-09-12 11:57 AM Person perception • The process of forming impression of others • Can be mislead by biases: • Effects of physical appearance—don’t judge a book by its cover but all humans base characteristics by its physical appearance and believe that what is beautiful is good • Studies showed that people rated VPs suggests that less attractive woman have a higher success ability • Research shows that Tall men are seen as better leaders and taller men are paid a higher salary than shorter men • First impressions • Study done by Solomon Asch took 2 groups that suggests that we pay more attention to the initial things If first impression was negative it takes a longer time and more • effort to negate the impression to make it a positive way • Influence of first impression can be negated if we are reminded to carefully analyze a person and to give careful thought to what you are being presented • Cognitive schemata—eg in textbook on page 148 • Schemata are used to make shortcuts aka implicit theories of personality • We make assumptions from one trait—laura is polite and attentive and we make the schemata(assume) that she is also trustworthy • We make connections and traits to draw conclusions of what other traits that a person must have • Stereotypes • Known as social schemata applied to a group of people • Stereotypes can be maintained by an illusory correlation— relationship does not exist but is expected . Ex if people from small towns are expected to be nice and when someone meets a person who is really kind, they think that person must be from a small town ; but there is no correlation of population and kindness • Prejudice—negative attitude based on an person’s membership to a group Attributions • Attributions are made when events are unusual or if people behave unexpectedly. Types of attributions Fritz Heider 1958 • Internal (dispositional) attribution • Attribute cause of behaviour to personal dispositions, traits, abilities and feelings If you make an internal attribution, it influences our behaviour and • because of that you get revenge • External (situational) attributions • Attribute cause of behaviour to situational demands or environmental constraints Kelley’s Model (1967) • Consistency • Distinctiveness • Consensus According to Kelley, we are more likely to make external attributions because of the 3 factors listed above are all high If consistency is high, distinctiveness low and consensus is high, it is an internal attribution Attributions for success & failure • Model by Weiner –refer to the 2 by 2 table in the lec 1 notes on webct • 2 dimensions: Internal/external and stable/unstable Biases in Attribution • Fundamental attribution error –internal not situational • Actor observer bias—when it comes to our own behaviour we consider our situation and don’t attribute own behaviour to internal factor • Self serving bias—tendency to attribute success to internal factors and negative outcomes (failures) to external factors • This is done for cognitive reasons • Someone who suffers from depression does the opposite of the self- serving bias • Defensive attribution –tendency to blame victims for bad luck • Based on the “just-world” theory; where the world is a just place and you blame the victim Pasted from Ch 14: Personality October-09-12 12:01 PM Personality “Grand Theories” –Psychodynamic perspective • The focus is on the unconscious experiences Freud’s pshycoanalytic theory • Sigmund Freud Background • (1856-1939) • Conversion hysteria—didn’t seem like there was any physical cause to this symptom, • Joseph Breuer –Another physician Freud worked with • Freud and Breuer tried hypnotic trances • Anna O –occasional speech disorders. • She had nervous coughs that were due to dealing with her sick father • She would cough uncontrollably after listening to dance music because she would rather be there than by her father’s bed side • Psychoanalytic theory attempted to explain personality by focussing on unconscious determinants of behaviour Structure of personality • Freud believed there were 3 distinct subcategories of personality • Id—source of psychic energy • Most primitive portion of personality • Sources of other structures • Operates on pleasure principle • Primary process thinking • Ex. is a baby, functioning all on biological urges • Ego • Ego is derived from Id • Deals with the demands of reality • Operates on reality principle • Secondary process thinking—related to problem solving and rational thinking • Able to reason and problem solve—related to • Superego • Oral branch of personality • Known as the executive branch Levels of awareness • Conscious • Consists of all the thoughts that presently occupy the mind • Whatever one’s aware of at any given moment • Preconscious • Material just beneath level of awareness that can be readily retrieved • Eg. Mother’s maiden name • Unconscious • Memories & desires well beneath conscious awareness but yet may still influence behaviour • Sometimes cannot be aware of to prevent anxiety, overwhelming feelings of guilt etc • Freudian slip • Id of the personality is strictly at the unconscious level Conflict • Conflict=Id  Ego + Superego • Freud concentrated on 2 types of conflict • Id getting out of control negative consequences • Superego getting out of control  sense of guilt • Unresolved conflict  anxiety • When anxiety is unresolved, we resort to defense mechanisms Defense mechanisms • these defense mechanisms are only temporary reliefs but do not solve the underlying problem • largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as guilt/anxiety • repression –blocking memories from conscious awareness • displacement—anger of feelings taken out on other people • ex. angry at your boss, then you go home and yell at your mom, or brother etc • reaction formation—complete block an impulse • repressed desire is replaced with the opposite behaviour • reactionor desire that is too painful we turn it to the opposite to feel less threatened • rationalization—make up a logical explanation to ignore the feeling • for ex, if you couldn’t reach the grapes, you say, they probably would’ve been sour anyways • projection—projecting a characteristic on to someone • negative characteristic –you accuse the person Psycholosexual stages of development • “Child is the father of man”—way these situations are handled lead to developed characteristics in life • Fixation • Failure to move from one stage to another • Oral Stage • Birth to 1 year (up to 2 years) • oral receptive personality –developed by continuing to seek pleasures from the mouth, such as smoking, eating too much • oral aggressive personality –develops verbally hostile behaviour • Anal Stage • 1-3 years Toilet training is the key task at this stage • • Anal retentive personality • Anal expulsive personality—person becomes cruel, pushy, messy and disorderly • Phallic Stage 3-6 year • • Most of this occurred at an unconscious level • Unconscious conflict • Oedipus complex (for males) •All males have the desire to kill their father and possess their mother •Castration anxiety—repress desires of what is listed above • Electra complex (for females) •Penis envy • Latency Stage • 6-11 years other • Sexual interests are dormant • Redirected to other activities such as school and sports etc • Genital stage • 11 years on • Renewed interest in sexual and romantic interests • Opposite sex peers becomes the focus Critique of Freud Positive side • Suggests importance of unconscious • Focus on developmental aspects of personality • Scope of his theory is quite broad Negative side • Hard to assess empirically • Over emphasis Carl Jung- Analytical psychology • Personal unconscious –based on life experiences • Collective unconscious –store of latent memory traces inherited from ancestral past • Archetypes—emotionally charged images and thoughts with universal meaning Alfred Adler—individual psychology • Focuses on the uniqueness of each person • Inferiority –feeling inferior always present the motivating core of behaviour • Humans strive for superiority • Defined as the universal drive to adapt, improve oneself and master life challenges • Compensation • Effort to overcome real or imagined inferiority • Inferiority complex • Argued that the feelings of inferiority becomes exaggerated • Could be due to parental neglect and develop an inferiority complex • Overcompensation • Hiding feelings of inferiority • Results in the individual striving for material aspect as opposed to strive for talents and skills Critiques of psychodynamic approach • Positive factors • Suggests importance of unconscious • Internal conflicts as source of stress • Importance of childhood on adult well being • Provides many interesting concepts • Negative factors • Hard to assess empirically—how do you define collective complex and study it • Lacks empirical support –some sort of bias involved • Sexist—gender imbalance by having a less positive view of females Humanistic perspective • Humanism • Theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their free will and potential for person growth • Not always driven by unconscious forces • Phenomenological approach • Assumes need to examine individuals personal, subjective experience in order to understand behaviour Carl Rogers (1902-1987) Self (concept) • • Collection of beliefs about one`s own nature, unique qualities, and typical behaviours • Incongruence • Degree of disparity between one`s self concept and one`s actual experiences Congruence • We try to behave in ways that are consistent with self concept • More rigid self concept tend to distort reality • Ex. thinking you are super smart but don`t do well in school—you blame the prof or say the test was too hard Rogers: Development of self • Need for positive regard • Parents can respond in 2 ways • Conditional positive regard—parents love the child for getting %90 or higher on a test • Unconditional positive regard—unconditional love by the parents • Self fulfilling prophecy • Behave in ways that are consistent with self concept • For ex. If you feel you are unlovable, you may act distant • Resistance • Resist information that may change your self-concept Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) • Hierarchy of needs • Starting at the base and move up Self actualization • An inborn tendency to strive toward the realization of one`s full potential • `..if he is to be ultimately at peace with himself, what a man can be, he must be`` (1970) • Peak experiences • Sudden feelings of intense happiness and well-being • Has a heightened sense of control • Overwhelming feeling of wonder and awe • Both rational and intuitive Critique of humanism • Positive: • Provides new, more optimistic perspective • Emphasizes aspects of personality that other theories ignore • Provides development of idea of self-concept • Negative: • Lack of testability • Overly optimistic view of self-actualizers • Inadequate evidence Biological & trait perspectives Sheldon’s Constitutional Approach (1940) • Personality traits • Durable dispositions to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations • Most theorists suggest that there is a hierarchy of characteristic traits Allport’s theory (1930s) • He suggested that traits could be classified on 3 levels : • Cardinal traits • Dominant trait that characterizes nearly all of an individual’s behaviour • Central traits • Basic characteristics used to describe a person • Prominent, general dispositions • Secondary traits • Less consistent, situationally determined Catell’s theory (1957) • uses factor analysis • looking for groups of traits that correlated • ex. outgoing and extraverted. Shy, introverted • develops 16 PF ( personality factor) Hans Eysenck`s theory • three major personality dimensions: • psychoticism –antisocial • extraversion • neuroticism—anxious Eysenck`s PEN theoy • biolological basis extraverts have lower levels, thus they seek stimulating situations • • variations in extraversion • based on different levels of physiological arousal • variations in neuroticism • differences in activiation thresholds Costa & McCrae`s theory (1985) • Biological and trait theory combined Behavioural Perspectives • Suggests that personality is based on interaction based on the environment BF skinner on personality • Deterministic view • All specific behaviours can be traced back to an environmental cause • Response tendencies: • Patterns of behaving in a given situation Personality as conditioning • Personalities are constantly being strengthened and reinforced Bandura`s social learning theory • Reciprocal determinism: • Interplay among internal mental events, external environmental events and overt behaviour • Self efficacy • Belief concerning their ability to perform the behaviours to achieve desired outcome • The key factor of how people regulate their behaviour • High self efficacy—related to high success • Low self efficacy –won`t be capable of behaving in the manner of obtaining reward or goal • 4 determinants(influence of self efficacy): • Performance experience • Observational learning—influenced by others • Verbal persuasion • Emotional arousal • Over protective parents may hinder the development child`s self efficacy Critique of behavioural Approach • Positive: • Reliance of empiricism • Importance of environment • Negative: • Extension of animal results in humans • Biological influences • No unified whole to structure of personality EXAM INFO • Exam time is an hour and a half long • MC and short answer • Ch. 13 and 14 • Responsible for anything discussed in lecture even if it isn`t in the textbook • Ch.1 is not on the example • Names and dates are not tested but helpful to know • About 30 MC questions • Know the bolded terms in textbook, understand the main points of each theory (ex. in adler`s theory, inferiority etc..) Pasted from Stress, Coping & Health October-09-12 12:06 PM Health Psychology • Looking at relationship of psychological behaviours and illness • Most common cause of death are related to behaviour • Excessive smoking, excessive drinking etc.. • Patients who stare at a pleasant view vs. a patient who is in a room with no windows, the patient with pleasant view tended to go home earlier Stress conceptualized • Acute stressors—sudden/short term • Chronic stressor—ongoing stressor in life • As a response • Stress is a physiological response to situations that threaten or challenge us that requires an adjustment or adaptation to that situational demand • As a transaction • There are cognitive factors involved Lazaraus & Folkman’s transactional model • 2 other models/ additional judgements : • Person will think of the consequences to cope • The person will think of the psychological meaning and relevance— thinking that doing anything poorly, reflects you largely General adaptation syndrome • Used this model to explain the short term effects of stress • Described stress as a non specific response of the body • Suggests there are three phases the person reacts to stress • Alarm • Resistance • Parasympathetic system kicks in • Coping with the stress • Our body still has that physiological arousal • Exhaustion • Body's resources decrease • Physiological arousal decreases • More susceptible to illness • Positive type of stress known as eustress Post traumatic stress disorder Stress and Illness Link between increased levels of stress and physical illness • • Other factors that can mediate stress • People with neuroticism will be more likely to have increased illness with high stress Type A behaviour and Heart disease • type A people are perfectionist, speak rapidly, multi task • Type A people feel the need to control situations • Research has found that people with quick anger or hostile aggressive are more susceptible to developing heart disease Moderators of stress • Coping –managing the discrepancy between the demands and the efforts • On-going process of assessing and re-assessing • Emotion focused coping –maybe using alcohol or drugs to remove selves from stressful events, venting to other people, changing the meaning of stress, praying for strength or guidance • Problem focused coping- used when we believe the demand is changeable • Planful problem solving, confrontal problem solving • Social support: • Emotional support • Esteem support—getting positive regard • Tangible support—receiving real support • Information support—providing new insight or advice • Network support—providing a sense of belonging • Social support and problem focused coping have a more favourable outcome than emotion focused coping Pain and pain management Pain can serve as a survival function; warning the body that there is some • sort of threat • Not just a sensory phenomenon Biological aspects of pain Gate control theory • • Gate operates by differentiating pain signal and opening or closing spinal gates  pain sent by thin fibers are sent through but the signals sent by thick fibres are blocked • Stimulating thick fibres help block pain • Gate control theory—acupuncture • Stimulating thick fibres will close the gates and block it Biological aspects of pain • Endorphins • Brains triggers the release and blocks the pain transmitters from being able to lock in • Stress reduced analgesia Cultural and psychological aspects of pain • Hispanic and Italian Americans reported high levels of suffering • Polish Americans reported low levels of suffering • Different meanings on different groups (e.g. of the civilians and soldiers) • Neuroticism • Tend to strongly experience negative emotions • High neuroticism have higher levels of distress Health Promotion • Transtheoretical model –people are modifying their thoughts beliefs or behaviours : • Precontemplation—they deny the problem and do not want to make the change • Contemplation—desire to change but have not yet made the decision to change behaviour • Preparation—the person has decided to make the change; they take the preliminary steps to change • Action –actively begin to change the behaviour; this step takes the most effort to change the behaviour • Maintenance –avoid relapse and controlled behaviour for a min of up to 6 months; still trying to control the behaviour • Termination—original problem will not return Different programs of health promotion • Aids prevention • These programs designed to provide information to change behaviours, motivation, guidelines and support Substance abuse • Aversion therapy • Based on classical conditioning Antabuse—produces nausea when a person drinks alcohol • • Pairing drinking and antabuse with the bad feelings of nausea • Short term affects. Patients relapsed after leaving the treatment Multimodal treatments • Relaxation training—helps person adapt • Research suggests that this treatment is successful Harm reduction • An approach to prevention • Not to eliminate behaviour but to reduce the effects • i.e. giving out condoms at high school, parents argue that they are just promoting this behaviour • if we can’t stop the behaviour, we try to reduce the harms that is experienced while conducting the behaviour Ch 16: Psychological Disorders October-09-12 3:07 PM History of "Madness" • Clear evidence that mental disorders/illnesses have existed for many years that is seen through Greek mythology • Demonic possession--attributed by outside the body o The cure of this was to drive the evil forces out o Different ways to cure this demonic possession: • trephined skulls --Cutting of the skulls to release the evil spirits • Exorcisms • Witch Hunts/ Trials --prevalent in Europe where accused witches were killed Insanity as a disease • Hippocrates argued that people were not possessed but had a disease in the brain Reform to Asylums "Moral treatment" Pinel transformed people who were previously prisoners to patients and did • not allow them to be beaten or treated poorly o He made sure the patients were fed and given a nice room with windows etc… Reform in the U.S • Benjamin rush --embraced the moral treatment but also used primitive techniques o Techniques such as the restraint chair and "The Crib" Eastern State Hospital • Supervised by the physician Dr. John Galt • 3 revolutions of psychology o 2nd --taught that the mentally ill differed • Used calming medications, sparingly used restraint techniques o 3rd--moving people in to the community and getting community care rather than being stuck in the hospital • Deinstitutionalization--built community facilities and once one bed was built then a patient was transferred to the smaller community facility Causes of Mental Disorders • Somatogenic hypothesis--that illness was related to a biological cause o Only able to identify specific causes to mental disorders Psychogenic Perspective • Abnormal behaviours due to some sort of psychological factor (i.e. caused by fear, heart break etc..) • Psychoanalytic perspective • Extreme use of defence mechanisms that result in maladaptive behaviour • Behavioural perspective o Maladaptive learning • Cognitive perspective--abnormal ways of thinking about themselves which causes depression Vulnerability Stress model • This model assumes that the onset of disorders and the social stressors that result in the abnormal behaviour • A person can still develop a mental illness due to a predisposition and depends on their life situations Defining Abnormal behaviour • The 3 D`s: o Deviance--mental disorder sensed to exist o Dysfunction(maladaptive behaviour)--inability to reach goals or interferes with daily functioning or impairment of functioning o Distress--If the person is distressed, they will have difficulty in performing specific roles • Also a cultural aspect to mental disorders Classifying mental disorders • Problems with the DSM: o Loss of information and cultural factors may not be taken into account Legal Consequences • Competency(also known as fitness--whether someone is fit to go to court) • Insanity o In Canada it is called Not criminally responsible Medical Disorder (NCRMD) Types of Disorders --Axis I Disorders • Axis 1 are the major clinical disorders--causes more distress to the individual and usually limited to one area of functioning Anxiety Disorders Females experience these symptoms more often • • Generalized anxiety disorder o Chronic (there for 6 months or more) unrealistic excessive anxiety --Also referred to as free flowing anxiety o Individual is usually tense, has insomnia • Phobic Disorder o Social phobia--persistent fear linked to other people (public speaking) o Closter phobia o Important point is the fear must be irrational • Panic Disorder o Sudden attacks that come and go o Panic attack once a week or more, also have panic attacks during sleep o They often develop secondary fears (i.e. fear of having a panic attack out in the public so they don`t go out much) • Obsessive compulsive disorder o Made up of 2 parts: obsessions and compulsions (doing a certain behaviour over and over again) o these obsessions can be reoccurring thoughts that enter the person's mind against their own will o Compulsions--acts that are constantly done to reduce and control the anxiety that they feel • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder o Examples of PTSD can be shellshock, reoccurring nightmares o They often experience guilt (e.g. when someone is guilt but they survive, they become very guilty) Etiology of Anxiety Disorders • Suggests that some people are programmed to over react to certain situations 2.Conditioning • 2 process model o Classical conditioning and operant conditioning (e.g. a girl has had a traumatic situation associated with snow and is scared of snow therefore she avoids going out in the snow) • Cognitive Factors • People that were more anxious developed that the sentences were interpreted in a more threatening manner • They have this predisposition to interpret things in a threatening style Mood (Affective) Disorders • Symptoms that co-occur such as insomnia, loss of appetite • Unipolar mood disorder: notice that women most likely to experience this rather than men • Bipolar mood disorder a.k.a manic depressive o Extreme emotions at both ends of the spectrum o Episodes of euphoria--staying up hours and hours on end o Much less common than unipolar. Mostly seen in the onset of 24-31 years of age Etiology of Mood disorders • Genetic vulnerability • Neurochemical aspects • Norepinephrine • Serotonin • Cognitive factors • Depressive cognitive triad: people have negative thoughts about themselves("I'm not good at school), the world(I hate this campus) and the future (I'm not going to do well in the future) • People with depression take responsibility for failures and negative events. Don’t take credit for their success • Learned-helplessness • Attributional pattern--when people expect that bad events will occur and that there is no way to cope with them • Interpersonal Factors • Depression is triggered by some sort of event • Withdraw from hobbies that they like • When they are around others, they make others feel depressed as well • Precipitating stress • Suggested that this stress is the trigger of an episode Schizophrenic Disorders • Literal term is meant to represent "split mind" • Onset is usually between 15 and 40 Schizophrenic Disorders Symptoms • Disturbance of thought • Loose associations • Neologisms--invented words that only have meaning to the person that is using them • "clang"--a rhyme used with statements • Disturbances of attention • They seem to be less able to filter out extraneous sensations • Seem to see or hear more than one specific stimuli. They get distracted by all the stimuli going on around them • Disturbances of perception • Types of hallucinations • Auditory--voices that people hear --> these voices can be critical, positive • Tactile • Somatic--feels that something is happening in or through the body • Visual--vague perceptions to distinct impressions of people or scenes • Gustatory--find that their food or beverages taste strange • Disturbed relationships with external world • Cannot distinguish fantasy life from the external reality • Elaborative private world: • Within these worlds they have delusions: delusions are false beliefs • Disturbances in emotion • Disturbances in motivation • Disturbances of behaviour • Catatonia--may be rocking back and forth Subtypes • Paranoid schizophrenia • Enduring hallucinations/delusions • Can occur in men age of 15-25 • Catatonic Schizophrenia • Characterized by motorized activity such as • May be hyperactive and coherent or may be immobile • Disorganized Schizophrenia • Tends to develop early • Hebephrenic Schizophrenia • Formal thought disorder • Peak incidence of 15 and 25 years • Transient hallucinations --spirits that talk to them • Superficial preoccupation with religion • Undifferentiated Schizophrenia • Waste basket category, people that don’t fit into the other categories that are listed above • Alternative classification • Type I • Type II (negative symptoms) • More likely to see intellectual impairments Course(s) of Schizophrenia • Research suggest that a later onset has a better prognosis • 3 main courses • 25% respond to treatment and have complete recovery • 65% intermittent--patients who are in and out of treatment • 10% chronic--constant care and hospitalization Etiology of Schizophrenia o Genetic Vulnerability o Neurochemical aspects • Dopamine hypothesis--that Schizophrenia is related to dopamine C. Structural abnormalities in Brain D. Family dynamics • Research shows that there is a relation • Expressed emotion--yelling or shouting expressed hostile comments E. Percipitating stress • Underlying vulnerability to developing Schizophrenia where this stress may trigger it F. Sociocultural factors • Social causation • Social drift  Unable to maintain their jobs Somatoform Disorders • Somatization disorder o Repeated complaints of physical illness o Symptoms becomes the persons identity o Rare occurring disorder o Defining characteristic--heart problems, GI problems • Conversion Disorder o Characterized by physical loss of functioning but there is no physical explanation for the loss of function o People with this disorder have more severe symptoms than somatization disorder • Hypochondriasis o Strong disease conviction o Often very sceptical when they are told by physician that there are no health problems o It is an overreaction to symptoms o Most common to immerge in the 20's-30's. men and women are equally to be diagnosed with this o Preoccupation that any bodily symptom means that there is a disease Etiology of somatoform Disorders • Personality factors o Neuroticism • Cognitive factors • People amplify normal bodily symptoms with distressed disease • Reinforced of "Sick" role • May help individuals in dealing with other life problems and to focus on the illness instead • Provides an alternative reason for failing • Increased attention of family members, friends, doctors etc Dissociative Disorders • Psychogenic Amnesia • can vary from a few hours of memory loss to a few days of memory loss • Memory for every day information is maintained and only has a selective loss • Psychogenic Fugue • Tends to immerge after a disastrous event • Dissociative identity disorders • Original personality is unaware of the others Etiology of Dissociative Disorders • Role playing • In this role play, people act in the way that is consistent with the disorders • Role play becomes so ingrained that is becomes that persons personality • Trauma-dissociation theory Developmental Disorders • ADHD - characterized by in-attention hyperactivity that is inappropriate for the child o Boys outnumber girls in a 4:1 ratio of developing this disorder • Conduct disorders o More common in body • Pervasive developmental disorder Autism • First identified by Leo Kanner in 1943 • Autism literally means: within one cell • `refrigerator parents--proposed it was developed by these sorts of parents o Theory centered around the mother • Spectrum disorder Core characteristics o Social impairment - children experience difficulties with relating to other individuals and have little sharing of emotional experience o Repetitive behaviours and interests - may rock back and forth or side to side, tactile: where they scratch their skin, olfactory: like to smell objects or people o Communication impairment - do not have an interest in sharing experience with others • Those with limited speech do not use gestures Prevalence • Occurs in 4-5children out of 10,000 • 3-4 times more common in body than girls Axis II Disorders • Personality disorders o 3 clusters of personality disorders Personality Disorders Avoidous or fearful cluster (cluster C) o Dependant personality - have difficulty making everyday decisions and tend to depend on others o Obsessive or compulsive personality- rigid conformity to rules and orders, tend to stress perfectionism over all else • These tend to be the same as anxiety disorders but are more mild Odd or eccentric cluster (Cluster A) o Schizoid personality disorder- does not show this need to attention and acceptance, they prefer not to interact with others o Schizotypal personality- characterized by a need of social isolation, have unconventional beliefs o Paranoid personality disorder- worried of being talked about, searches for hidden meanings in others, often appear cold and distant to others and tend to hold long grudges Dramatic or impulsive cluster (cluster B) o Histronic personality disorder- self centered in their physical attractiveness, self dramatisation, theatrical behaviour , easily influenced by others and circumstances, centre of attention o Narcissistic personality disorder - recognize themselves as powerful o Borderline personality disorder - characterized by mood swings and bouts of anger, takes out anger on themselves, suicidal actions and harm are not uncommon in this group o Antisocial personality disorder Antisocial personality disorder • More frequent in females than in males and more common in criminals, unethical business people • Tend to show aggressive behaviour • They don’t tend to seek out assistance o Don’t tend to feel guilt or feel bad about themselves which is why they do not seek assistance Disturbance of perception Types of hallucinations ( there are 6 in total) • Auditory • Tactile • Somatic • Visual - an illusory visual perception (an alleged perception of an object when there is no object present) • Gustatory • Olfactory - things seem to smell different Catatonia - motor disturbances that range from muscular rigidity and Disturbances in emotion Blunted affect - manifesting less anger, sadness , joy or other feelings Flat affect - showing no emotion at all Inappropriate affect - emotional expression unsuited to the situation There are 4 subtypes of schizophrenia: Paranoid schizophrenia - delusions of prosecution. Person with schiz feels that others mean to harm them or delusions of grandeur - believe that they are enormously important Catatonic Disorganized - central features are confusion and incoherence Central features of disorganized is confusion and incoherence • Their behaviour appears silly and child like, their emotional responses appear to be highly inappropriate undifferentiated - a mix of symptoms and thoughts disorders of paranoid, catatonic and disorganized schizo Dopamine hypothesis symptoms particularly positive symptoms, prodcued by overactivity of dopamine system in areas of the brain that regulate emotional expression Dopamine hypothesis Symptoms particularly positive ones Produced by t he overactivity of dopamine There is an overactivity of dopamine systems in areas of the brain that regulate emotional expression, motivated behaviour and cognitive functioning Somatoform disorder - physical complaints or disabilities that suggest a medical problem but have no known biological cause Somatization disorder - repeated complaints of physical illness over an extended period of time Repeated complaints of physical illness over an extended period of time Somatization- repeated complaints of physical illness over an extended period of time Onversion disorder physical loss of physical functioning with no physical cause for the loss of Conversion disorder physical loss of functioning but no physical explanation Hypochondriasis - excessive preoccupations of health concerns and worry of developing physical ailments Dissociative disorders - involve a breakdown of normal personality , resulting in significant alterations in memory or identity Trauma dissociation theory - development of new personalities in response to severe stress Psychogenic amnesia sudden loss of memory for important personal information Psychogenic fugue - sever memory loss which can last for years. This person loses all sense of personal identity Dissociative identity disorders 2 or more personalities/identities coexist within an individual Dissociative identity disorder Where 2 or more idenitites or personalities coexist within an individual
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